The U.S. Market for Vitamins, Supplements and Minerals

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Published Jul 1, 2000 | 400 Pages | Pub ID: LA577

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This study describes and analyzes the U.S. market for vitamins, minerals and supplements herbs, phytonutrients, essential fatty acids and more. Learn what strategies the major VSM players and giant pharmaceutical companies employ to wrest control of this dynamic market. Discover what opportunities exist to introduce new products and capture sales in new demographics. Find out what regulatory course the federal courts and the FDA are charting for the industry. And get the inside track on marketing trends and consumer attitudes with up-to-the-minute data from surveys, financial reports and trade and consumer publications.
  1. Executive Summary
      Scope and Methodology
      The Products
        Historical Overview
        NLEA Allows Health Claims
        The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act
        FDA Attempts to Reassert Itself but Fails
        Product Breakouts

      The Market
        1999 Sales at $9.6 Billion
        Growth Steady Across Categories, Slows for Supplements
        Table 1-1: Retail Sales of U.S. Vitamin, Supplement, and Mineral Market, 1995-2004 (dollars)
        Sales by Retail Outlet Type
        Top-Selling Herbs by Retail Channel
        U.S. Heartland Sees Greater Increase in VSM Sales
        Positive Factors Affecting Market Growth
        Negative Factors Affecting Market Growth

      The Marketers
        Over 1,500 Companies in Field
        Leading VSM Marketers
        Private-Label Brands Hold Large Share of Shelf Space
        Variant Marketing Methods by Retail Channel
        Increased Competition Will Lead to Shake-Out
        Competition Still New Product Driven
        Table 1-2: The U.S. VSM Market: Number of Product Introductions, 1990-1999
        Line Extensions Used to Gain Shelf Space
        New Products Targeted to Demographic Groups
        Emotional Health and Memory
        Digestive Products Improve VSM Industry Bottom Line
        Endorsements and Celebrities
        Pharmaceutical Packaging Assures Consumers
        Use of Branded Ingredients
        Standardization vs. Whole Herb
        Big Spending on Advertising Not Necessarily Effective
        M&A and Investments Diversify and Strengthen Market

      Distribution and Retail
        Two Distinct Distribution Sectors
        Many Buy Direct
        Distributor Margins for the Two Sectors
        Number of Stores Carrying VSM
        Private-Label Products Proliferating
        Larger Retail Margins in Health and Natural Product Stores
        Health and Natural Product Stores Retain Largest Market Share
        Drugstores a "Natural" for VSM Sales
        Burgeoning Product Sets Cause "ConSKUsion"
        Mass Merchandisers Compete on Price; Going After Drugstores
        Supermarkets: The Undeveloped VSM Channel
        Direct Sales an Important VSM Channel
        Internet Has Potential for Growth

      The Consumer
        About Half of U.S. Adults Use VSM Products
        Demographics of VSM Users
        Measured Types of Use Declined from 1998 to 1999
        Multiple Formulas Most Popular, Followed by Vitamins C and E
        Table 1-3: Percent of Consumers Who Use VSM Products by Product Type, 1999, 1998, 1993 (U.S. Adults)
        The Importance of Brands
        Belief in Necessity of VSM Is Growing
        Reasons for Taking VSM Products
        Opinions About Safety
        Hungry for Herbal Information
  2. The Products
      Scope of the Report
        Nutritional Vitamins, Supplements, and Minerals Sold at Retail

      History of the Industry
        Vitamin Deficiencies Discovered
        A Market Develops
        First Laws Governing Vitamins
        Controversial Megadoses Show Promise
        "Miracle Properties" of Vitamin E Prompt FDA Attention
        FDA Labels High-Potency Vitamins as "Drugs"
        Proxmire Amendment Reins in FDA, Opens Market
        NLEA Gives FDA New Rules and Power
        FDA Frustrates VSM Marketers after NLEA
        Passage of DSHEA Is Victory for Industry
        DSHEA Structure/Function Claims vs. Disease Claims
        FDA Rules for DSHEA Implementation Upset Industry
        Final Rules for Structure/Function Claims Released January 2000
        Implementation Plan
        Litigation Forces FDA to Review NLEA Health Claims
        NLEA Implementation Not Yet Final . . .
        . . . But Claims Are Still Pouring In
        Status of Cholestin

      Product Breakouts
        Three Core Product Categories
        Product Definition: Vitamins
        Of 30 Known Vitamins, Only 14 Have Been Quantified
        Fat-Soluble or Water-Soluble
        Antioxidant Vitamins Scavenge Free Radicals
        Product Definition: Supplements
        Herbal Products Top Segment
        Phytonutrients: Health-Promoting Compounds in Vegetables
        Product Definition: Minerals
        18 Minerals, but RDIs Currently Set for Only 12
        VSM Combos—An Emerging Category
        Other Delivery Systems Compete with Pills
        Single-Element vs. Multivitamins/Minerals
        Adults' vs. Children's
        Synthetic vs. Natural
        Health and Natural Product vs. Mass Market
        Table 2-1: Guide to Vitamins (16 Vitamins)
        Table 2-2: Guide to Supplements (83 Supplements)
        Table 2-3: Guide to Active Minerals (14 Minerals)

      Government and Industry Regulators
        Vitamins, Supplements, and Minerals Regulated by the FDA
        RDAs, RDIs, DRVs, and DVs
        Higher RDAs Likely for Older Americans
        Tolerable Upper Intake Levels
        Supplement Facts Panels
        FDA Confounded by DSHEA
        Structure/Function Statements
        Third-Party Literature
        Current NLEA Health Claims
        New Health Claims Possible Under Pearson v. Shalala

      Trade Associations
        American Botanical Council
        American College of Nutrition
        American Herbal Products Association
        American Nutraceutical Association
        Citizens For Health
        Consumer Healthcare Products Association
        Council for Responsible Nutrition
        Herb Research Foundation
        National Nutritional Foods Association
        The U.S. Pharmacopoeia
  3. The Market
      Market Size and Growth
        Sales Not Clearly Tracked
        Numbers Vary by Source
        1999 Sales Estimated at $9.6 Billion
        Sales Increases Strongest for Minerals
        Supplement Category Growth Spurred by New Substances
        Vitamin Growth Remains Steady
        VSM Combos Contribute to Growing Market
        Table 3-1: Retail Sales of U.S. VSM Market, 1995-1999 (dollars)

      Market Composition
        Vitamins Claim Largest Share of Market
        Table 3-2 Share of VSM Product Sales by Categories and Types, 1999 (percent): 6 Types
        Top Performers in Vitamin Category
        Herb Sales Down but Other Supplements Rising
        Calcium Sales Up
        Health and Natural Product Stores Remain Primary Outlet
        Drugstores Hold Number-Two Share of VSM Market
        Slight U.S. Growth for Direct Sales
        Mail-Order and Internet Sales Account for 5%
        Table 3-3: Share of U.S. VSM Sales by Retail Outlet Type, 1999-1998 (percent): 6 Types
        Top-Selling Herbs by Retail Channel
        Mass-Market Herb Sales Rising and Falling
        U.S. Heartland Sees Greater Increase in VSM Sales
        Heavy Users Distributed Across America
        Table 3-4: Regionality of Heavy Use of VSM Products, 1999 (percent and index): Midwest, West, South, Northeast

      Factors Affecting Market Growth
        Prevention and Self-Care Trend Continues
        Aging Population Will Drive VSM Sales
        Living Longer, Living Well
        DSHEA Final Rules Good for Industry
        OTC Labeling Opened to VSM Products
        Soy Health Claim Authorized
        Nutrient-Deficient Americans Need VSMs
        Calcium for Aging Bones
        Painful Joints: An Aging Problem
        Growth for Menopause Herbs
        Supplement Support for Older Men
        NIH Takes New Look at International Research
        U.S. Research on VSM Products Accelerates
        VSM Still Has Large Untapped Market
        Media Exposure Raises Profile of VSM Products
        Big-Dollar Advertising Campaigns Fuel Mass-Market Sales
        Mass-Market Chains Become Supplement Savvy
        More Health Professionals Endorse VSM Usage
        Health Insurers and HMOs Begin to Cover Supplements
        Market Responds to New Products
        Lack of Quality Highlighted by Press
        Spikes in Demand Cause Presence of Poor Quality Products
        Consumer Disappointment Slows Growth
        Mainstream Health Professionals Have Quality-Control Concerns
        NNFA GMP Seal Will Enforce High Standards
        Better Quality Control Sought through Methods Validation
        Move to Standardization
        Standardization Could Backfire
        Research Investments Offer Little Competitive Advantage
        Not All Studies Positive
        Phytonutrient Safety Questioned
        Functional Foods Could Cut Sales Growth
        But Not Widely Accepted in Health and Natural Channel
        Private-Label Expansion Lowers Sales Growth

      Projected Market Growth
        Sales to Near $14.9 Billion by 2004
        6%-9% Growth Rates for Vitamins
        7%-11% Annual Growth Rates for Supplements
        7%-9% Growth Rates for Minerals
        Growth Expected Well into the Future
        Table 3-5: Projected Retail Sales of U.S. VSM Market,
        1999-2004 (dollars)
  4. The Marketers
      The Marketers
        Approximately 1,500 Companies in Market
        Health and Natural Product Store Suppliers
        Dominant Herbal Supplement Companies
        Cross-Over into Mass Market
        Leading Mass-Market Broadline Marketers
        Large Conglomerate Mass Marketers
        Private Label Plays Important Role
        Leading Direct Marketers
        Table 4-1: The U.S. Market for Vitamin, Supplement, and Mineral Products: Selected Marketers and Brands (171 Marketers)

      Marketer and Brand Shares
        Leading Brands in Health and Natural Product Stores
        Table 4-2: Leading VSM Products Distributed by Nature's Best: By Product Segment Share of Sales, 3rd Quarter 1999 (company, brand/product, percent): 16 Product Segments
        Top-Selling Brands in Mass Merchandisers
        Table 4-3: Top VSM Products Sold Through Mass Merchandisers: By Product Segment Share of Sales, 1999 (brand and percent): 5 Product Segments
        Top-Selling Brands in Drugstores
        Table 4-4: Top VSM Products Sold Through Drugstores: By Product Segment Shares of Sales, 1999 (brand and percent):
        5 Product Segments
        Top-Selling Brands in Food Stores
        Table 4-5: Top VSM Products Sold Through Food Stores: By Product Segment Share of Sales, 1999 (brand and percent):
        5 Product Segments
        Mass-Market Private Label Holds Strong Share
        Table 4-6: Private-Label VSM Sales Through the U.S. Mass Market: By Distribution Outlet and Product Segment, 1999 vs. 1997 (percent): 3 Channels, 4 Product Segments
        Private Label Growing in Health and Natural Channel

      Competitive Overview
        Intense Competition: Survival of the Fittest and Biggest
        Big Spending on Advertising Not Necessarily Effective
        Competition New Product Driven
        Race to Launch New Types of Supplements
        Joint-Support Products Fluid
        First-to-Market Enjoy Competitive Advantage
        Marketers Tout Unique Product Benefits
        Innovation Drives Market
        Mergers and Acquisitions Diversify and Strengthen Market
        Equity Investors Fuel Growth
        Move Toward Standardization
        Standardization Technology Encouraged
        Standardization Used as Selling Point
        Publicized Independent Studies Popularize Standardization
        Beyond Standardization
        Marketers Position VSMs at OTC Alternatives
        Fighting for Export Markets
        Structure/Function Line Extensions Used to Stay Competitive
        Delivery Systems Point of Differentiation
        Private-Label Brands Garner More Shelf Space

      Competitive Profile: American Home Products Corp.
        Corporate Overview
        Primarily a Pharmaceutical Company
        VSM Part of Consumer Health Division
        Centrum Best-Selling Multivitamin
        Centrum Herbals Steeped in Lawsuit
        Focus Formulas
        New Centrum Performance
        Soy Addition to Caltrate Line
        Solgar Brand Grows Slowly
        A String of Unsuccessful Merger Attempts
        Lederle Retained in Cyanamid Sell-off

      Competitive Profile: Herb Pharm
        Company Overview
        Company History
        Full-Spectrum, Whole-Plant Herbal Extracts
        Quality Assurance Standards
        Product Reputation Best Selling Tool
        Education Contributes to Company's Success
        Tried and True Product Line

      Competitive Profile: Leiner Health Products Group, Inc.
        Corporate Overview
        Private Label Bulk of Company Sales
        A History of Innovations
        Body Benefits Clarify Consumer Use
        Megatrends Marketing Approach
        Company Increases Advertising to Bolster Lagging Sales
        Publicity Focuses on Women's Health
        New Products and New Manufacturing Capabilities
        Granutec Acquisition Increases OTC Business

      Competitive Profile: Nu Skin Enterprises, Inc.
        Corporate Overview
        Three Distinct Divisions
        Company History
        Locally Produced and Managed
        The Pharmanex Division
        Research Facilities
        The Cholestin Controversy
        New Products and Ventures
        New Distribution Channels

      Competitive Profile: Nutraceutical Corp.
        Corporate Overview
        Centralizing a Diverse Product Line
        Exclusively Through Health Product Channel
        Research Supports Company Growth
        New Product Innovation Drives Sales

      Competitive Profile: Omni Nutraceuticals
        Company Overview
        Diverse Product Lines
        Company Embracing the Internet
        Multiple Sizes for Different Classes of Trade
        Patents Give Company Competitive Edge
        Clinical Trials Bolster Product Claims
        Ad Expenditures Up in 2000
        Company Shifts to a Distributor/Broker Network
        Cash Infusion Boosts Growth

      Competitive Profile: Pfizer, Inc. (Pfizer Inc. and Warner-Lambert Co.)
        Competitive Overview
        Company's Product Lines
        Lipitor Partnership Joined Companies in 1996
        Quanterra Line Part of Warner-Lambert's Consumer Health Division
        Quanterra Sales Sluggish Despite Heavy Ad Spending

      Competitive Profile: Rainbow Light Nutritional Systems, Inc.
        Company Overview
        Company History
        More Than 130 Products, Herbalist-Formulated
        Food-Based Approach
        Five Product Groups
        Company Sells Systems, Not Single Nutrients
        Known for Quality Ingredients
        Health and Natural Product Stores Main Customer
        Store-Within-a-Store Customers Next
        Online Direct Selling New Direction

      Competitive Profile: Rexall Sundown, Inc. (Royal Numico)
        Corporate Overview
        Acquired by Royal Numico
        Products Sold Through Diverse Channels
        History of Company
        Aggressive Marketing
        Acquires Two High-Growth Category Companies
        Company Divests Mail-Order Division
        Direct-Sell Website Launched
        Enters Children's Supplement Segment
        International Opportunity in Japan
        A Growing Private-Label Business

      Marketing Trends
        New Products Lifeblood of VSM Industry
        Established Marketers Expand on Proven Products
        Endorsements and Celebrities
        Pharmaceutical Packaging Assures Consumers
        Repackaging for Structure/Function Category Management
        Novel Packaging
        Use of Branded Ingredients
        Purity of Ingredients Lends Cachet to Natural Brands
        Natural Product Store Exclusivity
        Selling to Seniors
        Selling to Children

      New Product Trends
        New Products Still Flooding the Market
        Table 4-7: The U.S. VSM Market: Number of Product Introductions, 1990-1999
        Line Extensions Used to Gain Shelf Space
        Unique Delivery Systems
        Colostrum a New Antioxidant Immune Builder
        Other Immune-Building Introductions
        Products for an Aging Population
        Joint Health Products Continue to Grow
        Eye-Health Products Abound
        The SAME-e Story
        Sexual Performance Products
        Memory Health
        Digestive Products Improve VSM Industry Bottom Line
        Plethora of Cleanse Products
        Heart-Health Sales Pumping
        Women's Health
        Children's Supplements
        Teens a Newly Targeted Market
        Table 4-8: The U.S. Market for Vitamins, Supplements, and Minerals: Selected New Product Introductions,
        January 1999-April 2000

      Consumer Advertising and Expenditures
        Marketers Continue to Spend More on Advertising
        Many VSM Marketers Advertise
        Top Advertisers—$10 Million or More
        Other Leading Advertisers

      Advertising Positioning
        Disease Prevention and Cure
        Structure/Function Claims Cautious
        Changes in DSHEA Positive for VSM Marketers
        Selling Hard Science
        Male Authority Figures Endorse Product
        Technology and Engineered Processes
        Prime-Time Selling
        Physical Relief …..
        ….And Emotional Relief
        Protecting Family and Loved Ones
        Keeping One's Competitive Edge
        Talking Directly to the Consumer
        Visual Gimmickry Draws in Reader
        Inner Beauty Equals Outer Beauty and Energy
        Examples of Consumer Advertising

      Consumer Promotion
        Books Promote Products
        Booklets and Newsletters Keep Consumers Informed
        Consumer In-Store Magazines
        Point-of-Sale Materials Are Educational
        Coupons and Rebates
        Sampling and Product Give-Aways
        In-Store and Staff Seminars
        Examples of Consumer Promotions

      Trade Advertising and Promotion
        Trade Ads Used by Most Marketers
        Ads Focus on Category Management and Profit
        Ingredient and Company Quality
        Contests and Sweepstakes
        Marketers Use Displays to Highlight Product
        Marketers Provide Educational Retail Training
        Marketers Offer Retailers Shelf-Planning and Maintenance Services
        Trade Shows Opportunity to Showcase Products
        Discounts Common Component of Promotions
        Examples of Trade Advertising and Promotions
  5. Distribution And Retail
      At the Distribution Level
        VSM Wholesale Sales Through Distributors and Direct
        Health and Natural Product Stores: A Distinct Distribution Channel
        Large Distributors Dominate Health Product Sector
        Health and Natural Product Distributors Gain Mass-Market Sales
        Leading Drug Wholesalers
        Distributor Services Add Value
        Mass Distributors Enlist Pharmacists as VSM Advocates
        The McKesson NutriStation Program
        Supermarket Distributors Focus on "Whole Health"
        Little Mass-to-Natural Distribution Crossover
        Many Mass-Market Retailers Buy Direct
        Selling Direct Offers Rewards to Marketers
        Direct Contact Keeps Product Top-of-Mind
        Distributor Margins Highest in Health and Natural Product Channel
        Using Brokers to Get and Keep Accounts
        Consolidation and Melding Expected
        Mass-Market Distributors May Target Health and Natural Stores
        Loyalty Counts but Lessening

      At the Retail Level
        Number of Stores Carrying VSM
        Health and Natural Product Stores Retain Largest Share
        Mass-Market Sales by Outlet
        Table 5-1: Share of U.S. VSM Sales by Retail Outlet Type, 1999 (percent): 6 Types of Outlet
        The Well-Stocked VSM Section
        Private-Label Products Proliferating
        DSHEA Rules and FDA Regulations Mold Retail Environment
        Retail Environment Makes Brands Less Important
        Some Products Cannot Be Categorized
        Margins by Retailer Type

      Retail Focus: Health and Natural Product Stores
        Retail Sector Essential to VSM Industry
        VSMs Essential to Stores
        Five Types of Health and Natural Product Stores
        Supplement Chains Critical to Industry Success
        Supplement Chains Push Out Independents
        Competition for Health and Natural Product Stores
        Meeting Mass-Market Competition
        Newsletters and Seminars
        Customer Support Is Key
        Building Repeat Customers
        Spotlights on Latest Product
        VSM Product Sets in a Typical Natural Food Store
        Structure/Function Category Support
        Whole Foods Emphasizes Private Label
        Advertising and Promotions
        Increased Use of In-Store Magazines

      Retail Focus: Drugstores
        A "Natural" for VSM Sales
        Education with Assistance from Manufacturers and Distributors
        Chains Educate Their Pharmacists
        Rite Aid and GNC Join Forces
        Burgeoning Product Sets Cause "ConSKUsion"
        VSM Set at a Typical Chain Drug

      Retail Focus: Mass Merchandisers
        Low Prices Drive Sales…
        …and Sales Growing Fast
        Top Mass Merchandisers
        Competing for Drugstore and Supermarket Customers
        Wal-Mart's OneSource
        Kmart's Nutritional Guide
        A Typical Kmart VSM Set
        Costco Emphasizes Big and Cheap

      Retail Focus: Supermarkets
        Supermarkets: The Undeveloped VSM Channel
        Potential for Greater Sales
        The Whole Health Road to Increased Sales
        Whole Health in the Kansas City Metro Area
        Minneapolis Chain Leads Whole Health Race
        Whole Health Integrated in the Store
        Private-Label VSM on the Rise

      Retail Focus: Direct Sales
        Direct Sales an Important VSM Channel
        Companies Range Greatly in Size and Scope
        Sales Growth Relatively Flat for Majors
        Federal Scrutiny of Recruitment Practices

      Retail Focus: The Internet and Mail Order
        Internet Fulfills a Niche
        Types of Internet Businesses
        Online Leaders
        Other Online Vendors Sell VSM
        Stores Use Internet as Marketing Tool
        Direct Marketers Go Online
        Online Retailers Strengthen Positions
        Information-Based Sales
        Large Advertising Expenditures
        Online Retailers Far from Profitable
        Mail Order May Move to Internet
        Examples of Retail Advertising and Promotions
  6. The Consumer
      Consumer Use of VSMs
        The Simmons Survey System
        54% of U.S. Adults Use VSMs
        Medium Users Account for Two-thirds of Usage
        Women and Older Consumers
        Education, Occupation, and Income Linked to VSM Use
        Region and Race Not Factors;
        Small Household Size Shows Tendency
        Table 6-1: Demographic Characteristics Favoring Use of VSM Products: All Users vs. Heavy Users, 1999 (U.S. Adults)

      Use by Product Type
        Most Types of Use Declined from 1998 to 1999
        Increases and Decreases in Use from 1993
        Multiple Formula Use Most Common, Followed by
        Vitamins C and E
        Various Types of Supplements Used by 3%-5% of Consumers
        Other VSM Products Used by Nearly 7%
        Table 6-2: Percent of Consumers Who Use VSM Products by Product Type, 1999, 1998, 1993 (U.S. Adults)
        Health and Natural Product Store Shoppers: The Whole Foods Survey
        VSM Products Used by Health and Natural Product Store Shoppers
        Increases and Decreases
        Table 6-3: Percent of Health and Natural Product Store Shoppers Who Purchased VSM Products: By Product Type, 1999, 1998, 1997 (percent): 39 Types of Products

      Demographics by Product Type
        Indicators for Use of Multiple Formula
        Older Consumers, Both Sexes, and Westerners and Northeasterners Use Vitamin C
        Indicators for Use of Vitamin E
        Older Women Use Calcium
        Indicators for Use of Vitamin B-Complex
        Vitamin B12 Use High in West and South
        Indicators for Use of Herbal Supplements
        Indicators for Use of Garlic Supplements
        Women and All Ages Buy Iron
        Broad Age Span for Use of Antioxidants
        Indicators for Use of Vitamin A
        45-64 Age Bracket Prime User of Stress Formula
        Table 6-4: Demographic Characteristics Favoring Use of VSM Products: By Product Type, 1999 (U.S. Adults): Multiple Formula, Vitamin C, Vitamin E
        Table 6-5: Demographic Characteristics Favoring Use of VSM Products: By Product Type, 1999 (U.S. Adults): Calcium, Vitamin B-Complex, Vitamin B12
        Table 6-6: Demographic Characteristics Favoring Use of VSM Products: By Product Type, 1999 (U.S. Adults): Herbal Supplements, Garlic Supplements, Iron
        Table 6-7: Demographic Characteristics Favoring Use of VSM Products: By Product Type, 1999 (U.S. Adults): Antioxidants, Vitamin A, Stress Formula

      Attitudes and Use by Brand
        Little Brand Recognition or Allegiance
        35% Choose by Brand
        Minor Brands and Private Label Used by Highest Percentage
        Table 6-8: Percent of Consumers Who Use VSM Products by Brand, 1999 (U.S. Adults)

      Demographics by Brand
        Demographics of Store-Brand Users
        Profile of Users of Other Brands
        Demographics of Centrum Users
        Centrum Silver Users Are Older
        Table 6-9: Demographic Characteristics Favoring Use of VSM Products: By Brand, 1999 (U.S. Adults): Store Brand, Other Brands, Centrum, Centrum Silver

      Consumer Purchasing Patterns
        Amount Spent on VSM
        Few Shop by Mail or Phone

      Consumer Attitudes
        Belief in Necessity of VSM Is Growing
        Growth in VSM Use as Alternative to Conventional Medications
        Consumers Take VSMs to Maintain Health and Feel Better
        Fighting Colds and Flu
        Living Longer, Looking Better
        Role of Herbal Remedies
        Unsure of Safety
        Use Will Continue Despite Professional Advice
        But Many Not Sure of Efficacy
        Government Oversight Sought
        Hungry for Herbal Information
        Key Information Sources

Appendix I: Examples OF Consumer Advertising
Appendix II: Examples OF Consumer Promotions
Appendix III: Examples OF Trade Advertising And Promotions
Appendix IV: Examples OF Retail Advertising And Promotions
Appendix V: Addresses Of Selected Marketers
NOTE: Appendices I-IV are not included in the digital version of this report