The Gay and Lesbian Market: New Trends, New Opportunities, 3rd Edition

 
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Published Oct 1, 2002 | 273 Pages | Pub ID: LA804022

Special Offer. Now 50% off the original price of $3000.
This new Packaged Facts report offers an exhaustive, timely analysis of the gay and lesbian consumer market in the United States. Featuring the expert insight of Witeck-Combs Communications, Inc., the PR agency with the nation's leading practice in gay and lesbian marketing, the report provides an overview of key characteristics of the gay and lesbian population, including income levels and household structure. The report then assesses the current size and projected growth of the U.S. gay and lesbian market through 2007 and analyzes key aspects of gay and lesbian consumer behavior. Media serving the gay and lesbian community are described. The report provides an overview of marketing and promotional strategies targeting the gay and lesbian market and profiles companies reaching out to gay and lesbian consumers.

New to the report is a cutting-edge discussion of trends driving gay and lesbian households, the opportunities these trends present marketers and real action steps companies can take to benefit from them.

Appendices include samples of advertising designed for the gay and lesbian market and a directory of resources to assist in marketing to gay and lesbian consumers.

A growing number of companies view gay and lesbian consumers as a vital component of their overall marketing strategies and targeted marketing programs. The buying power of gay and lesbian consumers places them among the most sought-after segments in an increasingly diverse American consumer market. Besides wielding substantial economic influence in their own right, gay and lesbian consumers are often seen as key players in the trendsetting urban market.

Discover what Census 2000 has to say about where gay men and lesbians are most likely to live. Benefit from an authoritative analysis of the size of the gay and lesbian population and reliable estimates of gay and lesbian household income levels. Obtain the latest thinking from marketing experts on how to develop effective advertising and promotional strategies to reach gay and lesbian consumers. Understand what gay and lesbian consumers look for when evaluating a company’s marketing efforts.

I. Executive Summary

    Introduction
    • Background
    • Overview of Report

    Scope and Methodology

    • Gay and Lesbian Market Defined
    • Methodology

    Demographic Overview

    • Gay and Lesbian Population Exceeds 14 Million
    • Population of Gay Men Totals 8.3 Million
    • Gays Younger than Average
    • Most Gays Are Single
    • More than 3 Million Gay and Lesbian Households Are Domestic Partnerships
    • Gays Focus More on Children
    • Gay Population More Concentrated and Urbanized
    • Gay Men More Likely to Live in Central Cities, Lesbians in Suburbs
    • Gays More Likely to Be Self-Employed
    • Gays More Likely to Be Political Moderates and Liberals
    • Public Opinion Polls Register Dramatic Long-Term Shift in Attitudes toward Gays

    Survey of the Market

    • Shifts in Societal Attitudes Contribute to Increasing Saliency of Gay and Lesbian Market
    • Gay Parenting Becomes Growing Market Force
    • Gay Parents Spend More than $22 Billion on Consumer Products and Services for Their Kids
    • Concept of "Buying Power" Used to Assess Market Size
    • Buying Power of Gay Men and Lesbians Totals $451 Billion
    • Gay Purchasing Power Highest in New York Metro Area 9
    • Top 15 Markets Account for 61% of Total Gay and Lesbian Buying Power

    Consumer Behavior

    • Reputation of Company Has Impact on Gay Consumer Choices
    • Positive Personal Experience of Gay Consumers Also Critical Factor
    • Gays Are Early Adopters
    • Online Purchases Leading Use of Credit Cards
    • Gay Consumers Carry Higher Credit Card Balances
    • Spending Choices Listed in Survey
    • Gay Travelers More Likely to Vacation in Foreign Destinations
    • Gays More Likely to Have High-Speed Internet Connection
    • Gays Heavy Users of Internet
    • Gays More Likely to Shop and Buy Online

    Media

    • Gay Press Evolves with Gay Community
    • Consolidation Brings Criticism from Activists but Creates Opportunities for Publishers and Advertisers
    • Viacom Plans to Launch Gay Cable Channel
    • PlanetOut Partners Leads Gay Web Sites
    • Web Sites Serve Many Market Segments

    Marketing, Promotional, and Advertising Strategies

    • Experts Advise Firms First to Treat Gay Employees Equally and Contribute to Gay Causes
    • Being First to Market Seen as Offering Critical Competitive Edge
    • Online Marketing Has High Priority
    • Grassroots Activities Key Component of Gay Marketing
    • Ad Spending in Gay Press Grows Faster than Spending in All Consumer Magazines
    • 2002 Gay Press Report Sees Increasing Use of Gay-Focused Ads

    Case Studies of Companies Marketing to Gay Men and Lesbians

  • White Rock Distilleries Unexpectedly Discovers Gay Market
  • Bridgestone/Firestone Reaches Out to Gays
  • Prudential’s Multicultural Marketing Includes Gays
  • Orbitz Courts Gay Community
  • Wrigley’s Big Red Markets to Gays to Help Revitalize Brand Looking Ahead: Trends and Opportunities
    • Backlash Less of a Strategic Concern
    • Trendsetting Segment of Gay Market Can Help Position New Products and Brands
    • Gays Represent Exceptional E-Commerce Target
    • Gay and Lesbian Market Offers Above-Average Growth Opportunity
    • Segmentation of Gay and Lesbian Market Creates Multiple Niches
    • Gay Consumers Share Attributes of Many Other Consumer Groups
    • Channels to Reach Gay Market Multiply
    • More Options for Gay Men and Lesbians Mean More Opportunities for Marketers of Consumer Goods and Services
    • More Ways Available for Marketers to Measure ROI in the Gay and Lesbian Market
    • Many Opportunities Remain to Leverage Brand Loyalty of Gay Consumers

II. Demographic Overview

    Market Definition
    • Key Terms Defined
    • Sexual Orientation Has Many Manifestations
    • Self-Identification Best Criterion for Defining Scope of Gay and Lesbian Market

    Survey Research Issues

    • Gay and Lesbian Survey Research Increasingly Available
    • Table 2-1: Selected Survey Research Sources on the Gay and Lesbian Population
    • Survey Responses Depend on How Question Is Framed
    • Table 2-2: Self-Identification Preferences: Gay/Lesbian vs. Bisexual, September 2000
    • Research Indicates Online Surveys Provide Accurate Profile of Gay Consumers

    Size and Growth of Population

    • Assumptions Reviewed
    • Gay and Lesbian Population Exceeds 14 Million
    • Table 2-3: Projected Growth of Total U.S. and Gay and Lesbian Population 18 Years Old and Over, 2002-2007
    • Gay Men Represent Larger Segment of Population
    • Surveys Disagree on Gender Ratio in Gay and Lesbian Population
    • Population of Gay Men Totals 8.3 Million
    • Table 2-4: Projected Growth of Total U.S. and Gay and Lesbian Population 18 Years Old and Over: by Gender, 2002-2007

    Age Structure

    • Gays Younger than Average
    • Table 2-5: Age Structure: Gay Men and Lesbians vs. General Population, 2000
    • Gay Men Major Segment of Population of Younger Males
    • Table 2-6: Population by Age Group: Gay Men vs. Male Population as a Whole, 2002
    • Table 2-7: Population by Age Group: Gay Men as Percent of Male Population as a Whole, 2002

    Race and Ethnicity

    • Gay and Lesbian Population Reflects Diversity of America
    • Table 2-8: Race and Hispanic Origin: Gay Men and Lesbians vs. General Population, September 2000
    • Table 2-9: Race and Hispanic Origin of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Survey Respondents, September 2000
    • Self-Identification Complex Issue for African Americans and Hispanics

    Household Structure and Living Arrangements

    • Most Gays Are Single
    • Table 2-10: Marital Status of People 18 Years Old and Over, 2001
    • Table 2-11: Living Arrangements: Gay Men and Lesbians vs. General Population, September 2000
    • But Many Live in Committed Relationships
    • Census Data Undercounted Number of Gay Couples
    • More than 3 Million Gay and Lesbian Households Are Domestic Partnerships
    • Table 2-12: Gay Men and Lesbians: by Living Arrangement, 2002
    • Table 2-13: Gay and Lesbian Households: by Type of Household
    • Many Gays Live in Households with Children
    • Table 2-14: Gay Men and Lesbians with Children, September 2000
    • Gays Focus More on Children
    • More than 2 Million Gay Households Include Children under 18
    • Table 2-15: Gay and Lesbian Households with Children, 2002
    • At Least 3 Million Children Live in Gay Households
    • Number of Gay Households with Children Will Grow Substantially
    • Table 2-16: Projected Growth of Gay and Lesbian Households with Children under 18 Years of Age, 2002-2007

    Geographic Distribution

    • Census 2000 Provides Framework for Geographic Analysis of Gay Population
    • Population of Same-Sex Couples Highly Concentrated
    • Table 2-17: States with Largest Populations of Same-Sex Unmarried Couples, 2000
    • Population of Same-Sex Couples More Concentrated than Other Population Segments
    • Table 2-18: Ranking of States: Same-Sex Unmarried Couples vs. Opposite-Sex Unmarried Couples, 2000
    • Gay Population More Urbanized
    • Table 2-19: Same-Sex Unmarried Couples: Metropolitan vs. Non-Metropolitan Residence, 2000
    • New York, Los Angeles, and San Francisco Leading Metro Areas for Same-Sex Couples
    • Table 2-20: Metropolitan Areas with Largest Populations of Same-Sex Unmarried Couples, 2000
    • Residential Patterns of Gay Men and Lesbians Differ
    • Table 2-21: Number of Same-Sex Unmarried Couples: by Gender and State, 2000
    • Gay Men More Likely to Live in Large Metro Areas
    • Table 2-22: Same-Sex Unmarried Couples: by Gender and Location of Residence: Metropolitan vs. Non-Metropolitan, 2000
    • Lesbians Are More Suburban than Gay Men
    • Small Towns Also Can Be Gay Population Centers
    • Residential Patterns in Key Metro Areas Analyzed
    • Male Same-Sex Couples in Bay Area Concentrated in San Francisco
    • Table 2-23: Distribution of Same-Sex Couples in San Francisco Bay Area: by County, 2000
    • Los Angeles County Has Majority of Same-Sex Couples in Southern California
    • Table 2-24: Distribution of Same-Sex Couples in Los Angeles Area: by County, 2000
    • Manhattan and Brooklyn Attract Gay Men While Lesbians Choose New York Suburbs
    • Table 2-25: Distribution of Same-Sex Couples in New York City Metropolitan Area: by County, 2000
    • Most Same-Sex Couples in the District of Columbia Are Male
    • Table 2-26: Distribution of Same-Sex Couples in Washington, D.C Metropolitan Area: by County, 2000

    Educational Achievement

    • Educational Achievement Data Vary
    • Table 2-27: Educational Achievement: Gay Men and Lesbians vs. General Population, September 2000
    • Table 2-28: Educational Achievement of Gay Men and Lesbians
    • Colleges Set to Recruit Gay and Lesbian Students

    Economic Status

    • Gays More Likely to Be Self-Employed
    • Table 2-29: Employment Status of Gay Men and Lesbians, September 2000
    • Table 2-30: Employment Status of Gay Men and Lesbians, September 2000
    • Income of Gay Men and Lesbians Provokes Controversy
    • Household Income of Total U.S. Population Varies by Type of Household
    • Table 2-31: Total Family Household Income: by Household Type, 1999
    • Table 2-32: Total Nonfamily Household Income: by Household Type, 1999
    • Recent Surveys Show Higher Incomes for Gay and Lesbian Households
    • Table 2-33: Total Household Income: Gay Men and Lesbians vs. General Population, September 2000
    • Table 2-34: Total Household Income: Gay Men and Lesbians vs. General Population, 1999
    • Survey Captures Gay Perceptions of Income Levels
    • Table 2-35: Perceptions of Income Levels of Gay Men: Gay Men and Lesbians vs. General Population, September 2000
    • Table 2-36: Perceptions of Income Levels of Lesbians: Gay Men and Lesbians vs. General Population, September 2000

    Health Issues

    • HIV/AIDS Remains Serious Concern for Gay Community
    • Younger Gay Men Remain at High Risk
    • Other Health Issues Begin to Capture Attention of Gay Men
    • Research Confirms Impact of Discrimination on Mental Health of Gay Population
    • Studies Highlight Lesbian Health Issues
    • Lesbians at Higher Risk for Cancer

    Politics and Religion

    • Gays More Likely to Be Political Moderates and Liberals
    • Table 2-37: Political Views: Gay Men and Lesbians vs. General Population, September 2000
    • Table 2-38: Political Views: Gay Men and Lesbians vs. General Population, 2000
    • Most Gays Lean toward Democratic Party
    • Table 2-39: Party Affiliation: Gay Men and Lesbians vs. General Population, September 2000
    • Table 2-40: Party Affiliation: Gay Men and Lesbians vs. General Population, 2000
    • Voting Participation High
    • Gay and Lesbian Population Less Involved in Organized Religion
    • Table 2-41: Importance of Religion: Gay Men and Lesbians vs. General Population, September 2000
    • Table 2-42: Religious Identification: Gay Men and Lesbians vs. General Population, September 2000
    • Metropolitan Community Churches Attract Many Gays

    Attitudes and Issues Affecting the Gay Population

    • Openness Regarding Sexual Orientation Remains Limited
    • Table 2-43: Degree of Openness among Gay Men and Lesbians regarding Sexual Orientation, September 2000
    • Figure 2-1: Openness with Sexual Orientation
    • Openness Related to Type of Relationship
    • Table 2-44: Degree of Openness regarding Sexual Orientation: by Type of Relationship, September 2000
    • AEI Study Sees Dramatic Long-Term Shift in Public Attitudes toward Gays
    • Gays Perceive Greater Degree of Acceptance
    • Table 2-45: Acceptance of Gays and Lesbians, September 2000
    • Gender Gap Seen in Attitudes toward Gays
    • Opinions Differ on Media Coverage of Gays
    • Table 2-46: Adequacy of Media Coverage of Gays, September 2000
    • Table 2-47: Fairness of Media Coverage of Gays, September 2000
    • Table 2-48: Perceptions of Gays in the Entertainment Media, September 2000
    • Disclosure Fails to Affect Public Attitudes toward Rosie O’Donnell
    • Most Americans Accepting of Gay Athletes
    • Table 2-49a: Views toward a Favorite Male Athlete If He Revealed that He Is Gay, July 2002
    • Table 2-49b: Views toward a Favorite Female Athlete If She Revealed that She Is Gay, July 2002
    • Table 2-49c: Perception of Other Sports Fans’ Views toward an Athlete’s Sexual Orientation, July 2002
    • Most People Support Law Prohibiting Job Discrimination against Gays
    • Table 2-50a: Support for Employment Discrimination Law: Gay Men and Lesbians vs. General Population, June 2001
    • Table 2-50b: Support for Employment Discrimination Law: Gay Men and Lesbians vs. General Population, June 2001
    • Table 2-50c: Support for Employment Discrimination Law: Gay Men and Lesbians vs. General Population, June 2001
    • Support for Same-Sex Partner Rights Increases
    • Table 2-51: Views toward Providing Certain Rights and Benefits to Same-Sex Couples, June 2002

III. Survey of the Market

    Factors Affecting the Growth of the Market
    • Shifts in Societal Attitudes Contribute to Increasing Saliency of Gay and Lesbian Market
    • Most Gay Journalists Believe Media Coverage Has Shown Continuous Improvement
    • Change in New York Times Policy on Reporting Same-Sex Commitment Ceremonies Seen as Cultural Bellwether
    • Corporate America Found to Improve Workplace for Gays
    • Tolerance of Gays Seen as Critical Element of High-Tech Growth
    • Younger Age Groups More Accepting of Diversity
    • Self-Identification Rates Likely to Increase
    • Aging of Gay Population Brings New Challenges and Opportunities

    Key Market Segments

    • Gay and Lesbian Market Includes Many Distinct Consumer Segments
    • Study Suggests Gay Men Living in Gay Neighborhoods Comprise Core Segment of Gay Market
    • Lesbian Consumer Segment More Diffuse
    • Gay Customers Important Customer Base for High-End Retailers

    The Gay and Lesbian Family Market Segment

    • Gay Parenting Becomes Growing Force
    • More States Recognize Role of Gay Parents
    • Marketplace Slow to Acknowledge Gay Families
    • Family Expenditures on Children Analyzed
    • Gay Parents Spend More than $22 Billion on Consumer Products and Services for Their Kids
    • Table 3-1: Gay and Lesbian Family Expenditures on Children for Selected Consumer Products, 2002
    • Expenditures by Gay Parents on Children Will Reach $28.5 Billion in 2007
    • Table 3-2: Size and Growth in Gay and Lesbian Family Expenditures on Children for Selected Consumer Products, 2002-2007

    Size and Growth of the Gay and Lesbian Market

    • Concept of "Buying Power" Used to Assess Market Size
    • Gay and Lesbian Buying Power Analyzed by Witeck-Combs Communications
    • Buying Power of Gay Men and Lesbians Totals $451 Billion
    • Gay and Lesbian Buying Power Will Reach $608 Billion in 2007
    • Table 3-3: Projected Growth of Gay and Lesbian Buying Power, 2002-2007

    Leading Gay and Lesbian Markets

    • Major Gay Markets Listed
    • Table 3-4: Metropolitan Areas with Largest Gay and Lesbian Populations, 2002
    • Gay Purchasing Power Highest in New York Metro Area
    • Table 3-5: Metropolitan Areas by Gay and Lesbian Buying Power, 2002
    • Top 15 Markets Account for 62% of Total Gay and Lesbian Buying Power
    • Table 3-6: Gay and Lesbian Buying Power: Top 15 Metropolitan Areas vs. All Other Areas, 2002
    • Per Capita Buying Power Varies Significantly by Area
    • Table 3-7: Metropolitan Areas by Gay and Lesbian Buying Power, 2002
    • Gays and Lesbians in Top Metro Areas Have Significantly Higher Per Capita Buying Power
    • Figure 3-1: Per Capita Gay and Lesbian Buying Power: 15 Top Metro Areas vs. Rest of United States, 2002

IV. Consumer Behavior

    Influences on Buying Decisions
    • Reputation of Company Has Impact on Gay Consumer Choices
    • Table 4-1: Impact of Company Reputation on Gay Consumer Behavior
    • Table 4-2: What Companies Need to Do to Gain Gay Consumer Loyalty
    • Positive Personal Experience of Gay Consumers Critical Factor
    • Table 4-3: Gay and Lesbian Perceptions of Components of Company Reputation
    • Demographic Factors Also Affect Gay Buying Choices
    • Life Stage of Individual Gay Consumer Another Key Variable
    • Core Age Groups in Gay Population Exhibit Distinct Consumer Expenditure Patterns
    • Table 4-4: Expenditures of Consumer Units of Single Males: by Age of Reference Person and Selected Expenditure Category, 2000
    • Table 4-5: Expenditures of Consumer Units of Single Females: by Age of Reference Person and Selected Expenditure Category, 2000
    • Table 4-6: Selected Expenditures as Percent of Total Consumer Expenditures: Single Male Consumer Units vs. Other Consumer Units, 2000

    Personal Finance

    • Health-Care Costs and Debts Biggest Source of Financial Worry
    • Table 4-7: Top Issues Affecting Financial Well-Being of Household: Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers, April 2001
    • Gay Consumers Increasingly Confident in Financial Management Skills
    • Table 4-8: Attitudes toward Personal Finance: Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers, March 2001 and August 2002
    • Ownership of Investment Accounts Less Common
    • Table 4-9: Ownership of Investment Accounts: Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Gays Prefer Financial Institutions with Personal Touch
    • Table 4-10: Features Most Important When Choosing a Financial Institution: Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers, March-April 2001
    • Gays Look to Basic Features of Credit Cards

    Shopping Behavior and Buying Patterns

    • Gays Are Early Adopters
    • Table 4-12: Selected Consumer Behaviors: Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Online Purchases Leading Use of Credit Cards
    • Table 4-13: Products and Services Most Frequently Purchased with a Credit Card: Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers, July 2002
    • Gay Consumers Carry Higher Credit Card Balances
    • Table 4-14: Credit Card Balances: Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers, July 2002
    • Spending Choices Listed in Survey
    • Table 4-15: Attitudes toward Spending: Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers, April 2001
    • Many Gay Consumers Plan for New Car
    • Table 4-16: Likelihood of Leasing or Purchasing New Car: Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Wal-Mart and Target Attract Gay Shoppers
    • Table 4-17: Most Popular Stores: Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers, March-April 2002
    • Gay Travelers More Likely to Vacation in Foreign Destinations
    • Table 4-18: Vacation Plans: Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers, June
    • Many Gays Participate in Team Sports
    • Table 4-19: Participation in Team Sports: Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers

    Gays and Technology

    • Gays More Likely to Have High-Speed Internet Connection
    • Table 4-20: Type of Internet Connection: Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers, June 2000 vs. May 2001
    • Gays Heavy Users of Internet
    • Table 4-21: Time Spent Online: Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers, May 2001
    • Many Gay Households Have Children Using the Web
    • Table 4-22: Number of Children Accessing the Internet: Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers, May 2001
    • Gays More Likely to Shop and Buy Online
    • Table 4-23: Use of Internet: by Type of Activity: and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers, January 2001
    • Table 4-24: Selected Online-Related Consumer Behaviors: Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers, May 2001
    • Gays Look to Internet for Financial Information
    • Table 4-25: Sources of Financial Information for Gay Men and Lesbians, April2001

V. Media

    Print Media
    • Gay Press Evolves with Gay Community
    • Evolution of Gay Print Media Draws Criticism from Gay Activists
    • Consolidation Brings Creates Opportunities for Publishers and Advertisers
    • Local Publications Predominate
    • 2002 Gay Press Report Shows Circulation Declines
    • National Titles Remain Influential
    • Publications Target Niche Segments in Gay and Lesbian Market

    Television and Radio

    • Gay Viewers Favor Gay and Lesbian TV Channel
    • Table 5-1: Likelihood of Subscribing to a Paid Cable Television Channel for Gays and Lesbians: GLBT vs. Heterosexual Respondents
    • Table 5-2: Likelihood of Purchasing Products or Services from Companies Advertising on a Paid Cable Television Channel for Gays and Lesbians: GLBT vs. Heterosexual Respondents
    • Gay Viewers More Likely to Subscribe to Premium Channels
    • Table 5-3: Subscribers to Premium Movie Channels or Networks: Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers, April 2001
    • Showtime Seen as Providing Most Gay-Focused Programming
    • Table 5-4: Cable Television Channel with Program Content for Gays and Lesbians: GLBT vs. Heterosexual Respondents
    • Showtime Achieves Major Success with "Queer as Folk"
    • Table 5-5: Viewers of Showtime’s U.S. Version of "Queer as Folk": Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers, April 2001
    • Showtime Launches Gay Programming Block
    • Gay Characters Have Major Roles on Network Hits
    • Viacom Plans to Launch Gay Cable Channel
    • Other Networks Compete with Viacom for Gay Audience
    • Gay-Themed Networks Face Obstacles
    • Gay Radio Remains Limited

    New Media

    • PlanetOut Partners Leads Gay Web sites
    • ProudParenting.com Supports Gay and Lesbian Parents
    • Web Site Created for Gay Sports Fans and Athletes
    • Gay Financial Network Continues to Serve Financial Needs of Gay Community

VI. Marketing, Promotional, And Advertising Strategies

    Marketing Strategies and Promotional Approaches
    • Experts Advise Firms First to Treat Gay Employees Equally
    • Support for Gay and Lesbian Causes Seen as Key Part of Building Relationship with Gay Consumers
    • Marketers and Advertisers Tap Expertise of Specialist Agencies
    • Companies Also Turn to Gay Employee Groups for Strategic Marketing Advice
    • Marketers Start to Fold Gay & Lesbian Segment into Diversity Marketing Strategies
    • Being First to Market Seen as Offering Critical Competitive Edge
    • Online Marketing Has High Priority
    • Grassroots Activities Key Component of Gay Marketing
    • Gay Community Events Continue to Attract Corporate Sponsors
    • Direct Marketing to Gays Difficult but Doable
    • Direct-Mail Piece from HBO Designed to Appeal Both to Gays and Broader Audience
    • Marketers Begin to Notice Gay Families
    • Marketers Start to Focus on Gay Sports Fans
    • Showtime Develops Licensing Program for "Queer as Folk"

    Advertising Expenditures

    • Gay Press Report Analyzes Advertising in Gay Press
    • Ad Spending in Gay Press Grows Faster than Spending in All Consumer Magazines
    • Table 6-1: Advertising Expenditures: Gay Press vs. Total Consumer Magazines, 1996-2001
    • Most Advertising Placed in Local Gay Press
    • Growth Areas Analyzed
    • Table 6-2: Share of Total Ad Space: by Type of Ad, 2000 vs. 2001
    • Table 6-3: Advertising Growth Areas: by Ad Category, 1997 vs. 2001
    • Table 6-4: Advertising Decline Areas: by Ad Category, 1997 vs. 2001

    Advertising Strategies and Themes

    • Advertisers Respond to Changes in Editorial Content in Gay Press
    • 2002 Gay Press Report Sees Increasing Use of Gay-Focused Ads
    • CommercialCloset.org Serves as Repository of Gay-Themed Advertising
    • Gay Ads Have Recurring Themes
    • “Gay Vague” Advertising Still Has Its Place
    • Gay-Themed TV Commercials More Adventuresome in Europe
    • Gay-Themed Commercials Remain Constrained in U.S. Market
    • Launch of U.S. Gay TV Networks Will Provide Wider Platform for Gay-Themed Commercials

VII. Case Studies Of Companies Marketing To Gay Men And Lesbians

    Alcoholic Beverages
    • Clos du Bois Builds Loyalty by Supporting Gay Community
    • Absolut Designs Special Campaign to Honor GLAAD
    • White Rock Distilleries Unexpectedly Discovers Gay Market

    Automotive

    • Bridgestone/Firestone Reaches Out to Gays
    • Ford and DaimlerChrysler Look to Gay Market
    • Volkswagen Targets Gay Media
    • Subaru Continues Gay and Lesbian Marketing Efforts

    Financial Services

    • Banc One Targets Gay Market
    • Prudential’s Multicultural Marketing Includes Gays
    • Scudder Looks to Affluent Gays

    Travel and Entertainment

    • US Airways Reaches Out to the Gay Market
    • Orbitz Courts Gay Community
    • Tourist Destinations Welcome Gay Business
    • Showtime Promotes "Queer as Folk"
    • WNBA Teams Court Lesbian Fans

    Other Industries

    • Motorola Includes Gays in Diversity Marketing
    • Personal-Care Companies Target Gay Market
    • Wrigley’s Big Red Markets to Gays to Help Revitalize Brand

VIII. Looking Ahead: Trends And Opportunities

Trends and Opportunities

  • Backlash Less of a Strategic Concern
  • Trendsetting Segment of Gay Market Can Help Position New Products and Brands
  • Gays Represent Exceptional E-Commerce Target
  • Gay and Lesbian Market Offers Above-Average Growth Opportunity
  • Segmentation of Gay and Lesbian Market Creates Multiple Niches
  • Gay Consumers Share Attributes of Many Other Consumer Groups
  • Channels to Reach Gay Market Multiply
  • More Options for Gay Men and Lesbians Mean More Opportunities for Marketers of Consumer Goods and Services
  • Gay and Lesbian Parents Represent Emerging Market Segment
  • More Ways Available for Marketers to Measure ROI in the Gay and Lesbian Market
  • Many Opportunities Remain to Leverage Brand Loyalty of Gay Consumers

Appendix I: Examples Of Gay & Lesbian Advertising

Appendix II: Addresses Of Selected Gay & Lesbian Market Resources

  • Advertising Agencies/Marketing Consultants
  • Publications
  • Other Media
  • Organizations