Automotive Aftermarket Products

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Published Jan 1, 2000 | 570 Pages | Pub ID: LA550

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This report provides detailed, up-to-date coverage of this increasingly competitive market, which is expected to top $150 billion is sales by 1999. The report analyzes the aftermarket in six categories: hard parts; tires; motor oil, fluids, and additives; batteries; accessories; and appearance chemicals. The report also: presents market size estimates for the overall market, as well as by product category; projects market performance through the year 2004; analyzes marketing and new product trends; discusses industry-altering changes to the distribution and retail structure; profiles major marketers; examines the strategies of the leading retailers and warehouse distributors; and analyzes Simmons and other data on consumer demographics and purchasing behavior. Individual sections are available. From Packaged Facts.
    Volume 1
  1. Executive Summary
    • Scope and Methodology
      • Scope of Report
      • Report Methodology
    • The Overall Market
      • OE vs. Replacement Parts
      • Six Product Categories
      • Hard Parts
      • Accessories
      • Tires
      • Motor Oil, Fluids, and Additives
      • Batteries
      • Appearance Chemicals
      • Overall Market Tops $113 Billion in 1999
      • Table 1-1: U.S. Retail Sales of Automotive Aftermarket Products by Category, 1995-2004 (dollars): 6 Product Categories
      • Sales to Reach $128 Billion in 2004
      • Hard Parts Category Two-Thirds of Market
      • Figure 1-1: Share of U.S. Automotive Aftermarket Product Sales by Category, 1999 (percent): 6 Categories
      • The General Outlook: Continued Steady Growth
      • Factors Favoring DIY Sales
      • Factors Favoring DIFM Sales
      • Hundreds of Companies Compete
      • Most Specialize in One or Two Categories
      • Competitive Pressures Intensifying
      • A Shifting Pattern of Product Distribution
      • DIY and Service Businesses Merging
      • AutoZone the Leading Retailer
      • 86% of Americans Own a Vehicle
    • The Hard Parts Category
      • Market Estimated at Nearly $71 Billion
      • Proliferation of Makes, Models a Plus
      • Competition Exerts Downward Pressure on Prices
      • Hundreds of Companies Field Hard Parts
      • Big Three Automakers Dominate Category
      • Competitive Overview
      • Marketing Trends Follow OE Market
      • Hard Parts Advertisers Spend $164 Million in 1998
      • Hard Parts Account for Half of Retailers' Sales
      • Overview of Hard Parts Purchasers
    • The Accessories Category
      • Retail Sales Approach $15.3 Billion in 1999
      • Market Affected by Economy, Demographics, Lifestyles, Weather, Product Trends
      • Hundreds of Marketers, Vast Array of Products
      • Leading Accessories Marketers Vary by Segment
      • Competitive Overview
      • Truck and SUV Accessories a Continuing Trend
      • Advertising Tops $20 Million
      • Accessories Boast Broadest Distribution
      • 42% of U.S. Adults Buy Accessories
    • The Tires Category
      • Sales Estimated at Over $14 Billion
      • More Cars, More Miles Driven
      • Six Companies Lead Tire Category
      • Competitive Overview
      • Longer-Lasting, All-Season Tires Continuing Trends
      • Leading Advertisers Spend $150 Million in 1998
      • Tires Typically Follow Three-Step Distribution
      • Overview of Consumer Patterns
    • The Motor Oil, Fluids, and Additives Category
      • 1999 Sales Estimated at $7.0 Billion
      • Category Growth Prospects
      • Pennzoil-Quaker State on Top in Automotive Fluids
      • Competitive Overview
      • Trends to Synthetics, Niche, and High-Performance Products
      • Advertisers Spend Over $139 Million in 1998
      • Products Have Wide Distribution
      • Overview of Consumer Patterns
    • The Batteries Category
      • Market Tops $4 Billion in 1999
      • Growth in Electronic Components a Major Positive
      • Johnson Controls Leads Batteries Category
      • Competitive Overview
      • The Trend to Branding
      • Top Marketers Spend $27 Million to Advertise in 1998
      • Two Distribution Paths Dominate
      • 30% of U.S. Adults Purchase Batteries
    • The Appearance Chemicals Category
      • Sales Estimated at $1.8 Billion
      • Fewer Motorists Maintaining Their Vehicles—with Some Exceptions
      • Major Players in Appearance Chemicals
      • Competitive Overview
      • Easy On/Easy Off Remains Important Feature
      • $28 Million in 1998 Advertising
      • Appearance Chemicals Widely Distributed
      • Overview of Consumer Patterns

  2. The Overall Market
    • The Products
      • Market Definition: The Automotive Aftermarket
      • Basic Market Distinction: OE vs. Replacement Parts
      • Six Product Categories
      • Hard Parts
      • Accessories
      • Tires
      • Motor Oil, Fluids, and Additives
      • Batteries
      • Appearance Chemicals
      • Figure 2-1: U.S. Retail Sales of Automotive Aftermarket Products, 1995-1999 (dollars)
    • The Market
      • Market Tops $113 Billion in 1999
      • Table 2-1: U.S. Retail Sales of Automotive Aftermarket Products 1995-1999 (dollars)
      • Market Difficult to Quantify
      • Sales of Hard Parts Near $71 Billion in 1999
      • Accessories Sales Top $15 Billion
      • Tire Sales Inflate to Over $14 Billion
      • Fluids Sales Reach $7 Billion
      • Battery Sales at $4.1 Billion
      • Appearance Chemical Sales at $1.8 Billion
      • Table 2-2: U.S. Retail Sales of Automotive Aftermarket Products by Category, 1995-1999 (dollars): Hard Parts, Accessories, Tires, Fluids, Appearance Chemicals
    • Factors to Market Growth
      • The General Outlook: Continued Steady Growth
      • Aging of U.S. Vehicle Fleet a Major Driver
      • Americans Own More Vehicles
      • Annual Mileage Rates Continue to Increase
      • Nation's Passenger Fleet Older Than Ever
      • New Vehicle Sales Reach 10-Year High, Trucks/SUVs a Growing Percentage of U.S. Fleet
      • Leasing Option Slows
      • Economic Health Fuels Market
      • Vehicle Inspections Boost Aftermarket
      • Factors Favoring DIY Sales
      • Factors Favoring DIFM Sales
      • Sophisticated Diagnostic Tools Make Sense of Sophisticated Engines
      • Durability of Parts a Dampening Factor
      • Synthetic Motor Oils Also Lasting Longer
      • Creative Marketing Spurs Sales
      • Marketers Target Hispanics, Others
      • Consumer Education Boosts DIY Activity
      • Extended Warranties a Negative Factor
      • Imports Less of a Deterrent to DIY
      • Light Truck and SUV Popularity Boost DIY Activity
      • Advancing Technology: Minuses and Pluses
      • Competition Puts Pressure on Prices
      • Environmental Concerns Encourage Better Maintenance
      • Zero-Emissions Vehicles (ZEVs) Mandated by CARB
      • Hybrid Vehicles Offer Valuable Compromise
      • I/M-240 Standards Relaxed
      • The OBD-II Controversy
      • Vehicles to Contain Fewer Parts
      • Extreme Weather Takes a Toll on Hard Parts, Fluids
      • Mild Weather a Boon to Appearance Chemicals
    • Projected Market Growth
      • Market to Reach $128 Billion by 2004
      • Table 2-3: Projected U.S. Retail Sales of Automotive Aftermarket Products by Category, 1999-2004 (dollars): Hard Parts, Accessories, Tires, Fluids, Appearance Chemicals
    • Marketer Overview
      • Hundreds of Companies Compete
      • Most Specialize in One or Two Categories
      • Big Three Automakers Dominate Hard Parts Category
      • Leading Accessories Marketers Vary by Segment
      • Six Companies Lead Tire Category
      • Pennzoil-Quaker State on Top in Fluids Category
      • Johnson Controls Leads Battery Category
      • Major Players in Appearance Chemicals
      • Table 2-4: The U.S. Market for Automotive Aftermarket Products: Selected Leading Marketers and Brands (55 Marketers and Their Brands)
    • The Competitive Situation
      • Competitive Pressures Intensifying
      • Automakers Target Aftermarket
      • Competitive Overview: Hard Parts
      • Competitive Overview: Accessories
      • Competitive Overview: Tires
      • Mergers and Acquisitions Reshape Market
      • Competitive Overview: Automotive Fluids
      • Competitive Overview: Batteries
      • Competitive Overview: Appearance Chemicals
      • Field Becoming Crowded with Newcomers and Line Extensions
    • Marketing and New Product Trends
      • Electronics Key Trend in Hard Parts and Accessories
      • Truck, SUV Products Rule Accessories
      • Self-Sealing and Run-Flat Trends in Tires
      • Longer-Lasting and Synthetic Motor Oils
      • Higher Voltage, Modular Batteries a Parallel Trend
      • One-Step and Tire-Care Products of Note in Appearance Chemicals
      • Advertising Trends
    • Distribution
      • Background of a Complex Distribution Structure
      • New Trends Emerge in 1970s and 1980s
      • Restructuring in the 1990s
      • Warehouse Distributors
      • The Top 10 Wholesalers
      • Table 2-5: Top 10 Aftermarket Wholesalers, 1999 (percent, number, and rank)
      • Program Distributors
      • NAPA—The Largest Program Distributor
      • Jobbers, WDs, and Programmers
      • The Leading Jobber Chains
      • Jobbers and Remanufactured Hard Parts
      • Jobber Margins for "Remans"
      • Distribution to Retailers
    • Retail Structure
      • Preliminary Distinction: DIY vs. DIFM
      • DIY and Service Businesses Merging
      • Servicer-Oriented Retail Outlets
      • New Car Dealerships
      • Service Specialists' Role Increasing
      • Tire Dealers Expand Service Offerings
      • Independent Repair Garages Hang On
      • Gas Stations' Role in Aftermarket Shrinking
      • DIY-Oriented Retail Outlets
      • Auto Parts Stores
      • Mass Merchandisers
      • A Few Department Stores Still Offer Automotive Products
      • Performance Shops
      • Food Stores, Drugstores, Convenience Stores
    • At the Retail Level
      • AutoZone the Leading Retailer
      • Table 2-6: Top 10 Aftermarket Retailers, 1999 (percent, number, and rank)
      • Consolidation Reshaping Ranks of Retailers
      • Many Top Players Opt Out
      • Number of Retail Outlets Keeps Growing
      • Wholesalers Have Become Retailers, Too
      • Auto Parts Stores Lead in DIY Retail Share
      • General Repair Shops Lead in DIFM Sales
      • Auto Parts Stores Carrying More Hard Parts
      • Trend to Larger Stores
      • Trend to Sole Suppliers
      • Retailers Paying More Attention to Merchandising
      • Hard Parts SKUs
      • Accessories and Chemicals a Growing Part of the Mix
      • Margins Average 30%-50%
      • Chemicals Lead on Turns
    • The Consumer
      • Note on Simmons Market Research Bureau Data
      • 86% of Americans Own a Vehicle
      • Repair Shops/Garages Are Preferred Service Outlet
      • Table 2-7: Consumer Ownership of Vehicles by Type, 1998 (percent): 9 Types of Vehicle, Other
      • Table 2-8: Percent of U.S. Adults Who Have Their Car Serviced: By Repair Outlet Type, 1998 (percent): 6 Types of Outlet, Other

  3. Hard Parts
    • The Products
      • Category Scope: Replacement Parts for Original Equipment
      • Engine
      • Fuel System
      • Electrical System
      • Cooling System
      • Exhaust System
      • Drive Train
      • Suspension System
      • Braking System
      • Miscellaneous
      • Improved Quality of Hard Parts
      • Remanufactured Parts
      • Metals and Other Materials Used in Hard Parts
      • Figure 3-1: U.S. Retail Sales of Automotive Aftermarket Hard Parts, 1995-1999 (dollars)
    • The Market
      • Market Estimated at Nearly $71 Billion
      • Table 3-1: U.S. Retail Sales of Automotive Aftermarket Hard Parts, 1995-1999 (dollars)
      • Methodology Based on AAIA Data
      • Sales by Retail Outlet: Auto Dealers Lead
      • Table 3-2: Share of Automotive Hard Part Sales by Retail Outlet, 1999 (percent): 9 Retailer Types, Other
    • Factors to Market Growth
      • Proliferation of Makes, Models a Plus
      • Overall Plusses: Size and Age of Vehicle Fleet, More Miles Being Driven
      • Tougher Vehicle Inspections Also Positive
      • Today's Parts Cost More
      • Weather Takes a Toll on Hard Parts
      • Competition Exerts Downward Pressure on Prices
      • Increased Durability of Parts Also Limiting
      • Vehicles to Contain Fewer Parts
      • Front-Wheel Drive a Plus for Brake Replacements
      • Spark Plugs' Future Cloudy
      • Filters' Prospects Good
      • Exhaust Systems Need Less Frequent Replacement
      • Shocks/Struts Face Bumpy Road
      • Steering/Suspension/Drive Train System Sales Should Soar
      • Transmission/Engine Fans
      • Headlamps a Trendy Customization Item
      • New Lighting Technologies a Visible Improvement
      • Oxygen Sensors Have Strong Growth Potential
      • Hard Part Innovations
    • Projected Market Growth
      • Market to Grow at 2%-3% Annually
      • Table 3-3: Projected U.S. Retail Sales of Automotive Aftermarket Hard Parts, 1999-2004 (dollars)
    • The Marketers
      • Hundreds of Marketers
      • Most Stick to One or Two Categories
      • Approximately 150 Hard Parts Marketers
      • Specialists and Generalists
      • Big Three Automakers Dominate Overall Aftermarket
      • More Competition in Retail Arena
      • Leading Specialists
      • Leading Generalists
      • Service Specialist Marketers
      • Market Share Data Based on Consumer Usage Surveys
      • Oil and Air Filters
      • Spark Plugs
      • Brake Parts
      • Mufflers and Exhaust Systems
      • Shock Absorbers/Struts
      • Alternators/Starters/Ignitions
      • Lighting
      • Table 3-4: U.S. Automotive Aftermarket: Selected Leading Hard Parts Marketers, Brands, and Product Lines (40 Marketers and Their Brands)
    • The Competitive Situation
      • Competitive Pressures Intensifying
      • Automakers Target the Aftermarket
      • With Freedom, Delphi May Pursue Aftermarket
      • Automakers Lower Prices on Replacement Parts
      • Automakers Have Big Production Advantage
      • Plus Superior Marketing Capabilities
      • Yet Many Consumers Resent Higher Cost
      • Other Hard Parts Marketers Have Other Advantages
      • Sophisticated Aftermarketers Offer Superior Problem-Solving Parts
      • Aftermarketers Target Imports
      • Diversify Their Aftermarket Businesses
      • Acquisitions a Major Survival Strategy
      • Entry Into Foreign Markets
      • Retail Price Competition Squeezes Margins
      • Aftermarketers Improving Their Efficiency
      • "Partnering" with Customers
      • Parts Proliferation a Continuing Problem
      • The Trend to "Preferred Vendors"
      • Locating New Markets
      • The Need for Advertising
      • Competitive Capsule: Filters
      • Competitive Capsule: Spark Plugs
      • Competitive Capsule: Starters/Alternators
    • Competitive Profile: ACDelco (General Motors Corp.)
      • ACDelco—GM's Aftermarket Division
      • GM Parts Sold Through GM Goodwrench Outlets
      • A Powerhouse Parent
    • Competitive Profile: AlliedSignal, Inc.
      • Supplier to a Wide Range of Industries
      • Aftermarket Business Stumbles
      • Company Acquires Prestone
      • Reorganizes Automotive Products Group
      • Merger with Honeywell Raises New Doubts
    • Competitive Profile: Arvin Industries
      • An Exhaust and Ride-Control Systems Leader
      • Acquisition of Purolator Broadens Aftermarket Reach
    • Competitive Profile: Dana Corporation
      • Traditional Market Specialist
      • Acquires Echlin to Increase Strength in Aftermarket
      • Wins New Aftermarket Business in 1999
    • Competitive Profile: Federal-Mogul Corporation
      • A Major Aftermarket Supplier
      • Divestitures and Acquisitions
    • Marketing and New Product Trends
      • Trends Follow OE Market
      • But Aftermarketers Sometimes Innovators
      • Trend to High-Performance Products
      • Hybrid Vehicles Will Change Market
      • Electronics Also Changing the Hard Parts Market
    • Consumer Advertising Expenditures
      • Major Advertisers Spend Over $164 Million in 1998
      • Midas the Leading Advertiser
      • Filter and Spark Plug Marketers Build Brand Awareness
      • Some Marketers Reap Cross-Over Benefits
      • Retailers Increasingly Advertising Hard Parts
    • Consumer Advertising Positioning
      • Racing Still a Favored Theme
      • Arvin Signs Agreement with Red Hot NASCAR Rookie
      • Superior Performance a Similar Theme
      • Efficiency Also a Sales Point
      • AlliedSignal Puts New Ad Muscle Behind Fram
      • "Worth the Extra Price" Positioning
      • Safety a Frequent Theme for Certain Hard Parts
      • Humor Breaking into Hard Parts Advertising
      • OE Connection Implies Quality
      • Examples of Advertising
    • Distribution and Retail
      • Move to Two-Step Distribution
      • Yet WDs Hang On
      • Trends in Warehouse Distribution
      • Specialization Another Strategy
      • Programmers May Also Become Two-Steppers
      • Manufacturers Sell Direct
      • Case Study in Evolving Distribution Trends: Detroit Gasket
      • AutoZone: "The Enemy of Every Jobber and WD Store"
      • But AutoZone Not the Only Game in Town
      • Independents Survive
    • At the Retail Level
      • Retailers Average Half Their Sales in Hard Parts
      • Margins Average 30%-40%
      • Stores Stock an Average of 34,000 SKUs
      • Spark Plugs and Related Tune-Up Parts
      • Filters Average 33%-41% Margins, Four Annual Turns
      • Cooling System Parts Are Big Sellers
      • Brake Parts Offer High Margins
      • Shock and Strut Sales Increasing
      • Water Pumps Have High Margins
      • Bearings Occupy Little Space, Offer Average Margins
      • Fuses Offer High Margins, High Turns
      • Ditto for Headlamps
    • The Consumer
      • Note on Simmons Market Research Bureau Data
      • Spring 1998 Survey Includes Many Hard Parts
      • One Third of Purchases Are for DIY Installation
      • Demographic Profile of a DIYer
      • A Number of Distinctions Between Brake and Muffler DIYers
      • Where Parts Are Purchased
      • Same Two Brands Lead in Oil Filters
      • Fram and ACDelco Oil Filter Purchasers Present Similar Profiles, Recall Auto DIYers Overall
      • Race an Indicator for Motorcraft Purchasers; College Education for Quaker State
      • Fram Is Leading Brand of Air Filter
      • Demographic Profile of Air Filter Purchasers by Brand
      • ACDelco and Champion the Leading Brands of Spark Plugs
      • Brake Brands and Their Purchasers Remain Anonymous
      • Midas the Leading Brand of Muffler
      • Muffler Purchasers Reflect DIFM Customers
      • Walker Profile Less Well-Defined
      • Monroe the Most Popular Brand of Shocks/Struts
      • Monroe Purchasers Fit Profile of a DIYer
      • Table 3-5: Consumer Overview: Purchase of Automotive Aftermarket Hard Parts by Type, 1998 (percent, age, income): 6 Types
      • Table 3-6a: Consumers of Automotive Aftermarket Hard Parts by Who Installs, 1998 (U.S. Adults): Oil Filters, Air Filters, Spark Plugs
      • Table 3-6b: Consumers of Automotive Aftermarket Hard Parts by Who Installs, 1998 (U.S. Adults): Brake Parts, Mufflers, Shocks/Struts
      • Table 3-7a: Demographic Characteristics Favoring DIY Installation of Automotive Aftermarket Hard Parts by Type, 1998 (U.S. Adults): Air Filters, Oil Filters, Spark Plugs
      • Table 3-7b: Demographic Characteristics Favoring DIY Installation of Automotive Aftermarket Hard Parts by Type, 1998 (U.S. Adults): Brake Pads/Linings, Mufflers, Shocks/Struts
      • Table 3-8a: Consumers of Automotive Aftermarket Hard Parts by Where Purchased, 1998 (U.S. Adults): Oil Filters, Air Filters, Spark Plugs
      • Table 3-8b: Consumers of Automotive Aftermarket Hard Parts by Where Purchased, 1998 (U.S. Adults): Brake Parts, Mufflers, Shocks/Struts
      • Table 3-9: Consumer Purchasing of Oil Filters by Brand, 1998 (percent): 12 Brands, Don't Know, Other
      • Table 3-10a: Demographic Characteristics Favoring Purchase of Oil Filters by Brand: Fram vs. ACDelco, 1998 (U.S. Adults)
      • Table 3-10b: Demographic Characteristics Favoring Purchase of Oil Filters by Brand: Motorcraft vs. Quaker State, 1998 (U.S. Adults)
      • Table 3-11: Consumer Purchasing of Air Filters by Brand, 1998 (percent): 11 Brands, Don't Know, Other
      • Table 3-12: Demographic Characteristics Favoring Purchase of Air Filters by Brand, 1998 (U.S. Adults): Fram, ACDelco, NAPA
      • Table 3-13: Consumer Purchasing of Spark Plugs by Brand, 1998 (percent): 8 Brands, Don't Know, Other
      • Table 3-14: Consumer Purchasing of Mufflers by Brand, 1998 (percent): 10 Brands, Don't Know, Other
      • Table 3-15: Demographic Characteristics Favoring Purchase of Mufflers by Brand, 1998 (U.S. Adults): Midas, Meineke, Walker
      • Table 3-16: Consumer Purchasing of Shock Absorbers/Struts by Brand, 1998 (percent): 12 Brands, Don't Know, Other
      • Table 3-17: Demographic Characteristics Favoring Purchase of Shock Absorbers/Struts by Brand, 1998 (U.S. Adults): Monroe, Gabriel, Delco

  4. Accessories
    • The Products
      • Category Scope
      • 13 Product Segments
      • Products Not Included
      • Figure 4-1: U.S. Retail Sales of Automotive Accessories, 1995-1999 (dollars)
    • The Market
      • Retail Sales Approach $15.3 Billion in 1999
      • Table 4-1: U.S. Retail Sales of Automotive Accessories, 1995-1999 (dollars)
      • Market Size Estimates Vary
      • Electronics the Largest Segment
      • Custom Wheels the Second-Largest Segment
      • Truck Accessories in Third Place
      • Hand Tools Fourth, Windshield Wipers Fifth
      • Table 4-2: Estimated Sales of Automotive Accessories by Product Type, 1999 (dollars and percent): 12 Product Types, All Others
    • Factors to Market Growth
      • Accessories Market Affected by Economy, Demographics, Lifestyles, Weather, Product Trends
      • Lifestyles a Factor
      • Weather Plays a Role
      • Truck Popularity Portends Future Market Growth
      • More OE Products, But Accessory Sales Still Rising
      • Crime, Avoiding Traffic Law Enforcement Factors in Electronic Sales
      • Wheels One of Few Customization Possibilities Left
      • New Products Grow the Market
    • Projected Market Growth
      • Market to Approach $20.8 Billion by 2004
      • Table 4-3: Projected U.S. Retail Sales of Automotive Accessories, 1999-2004 (dollars)
    • The Marketers
      • Hundreds of Marketers, Vast Array of Products
      • Most Are Automotive Specialists
      • Major Autosound Marketers
      • Leading Security System Marketers
      • Leading Radar Detector Marketers
      • Sunpro a Leader in Diagnostic Scanners
      • Major Custom Wheel Marketers
      • Several Strong Tool Manufacturers
      • Wiper Segment Draws Competitors
      • Several Lighting Leaders
      • Medo Tops in Air Fresheners
      • Rubber Queen Reigns Over Floor Mats
      • Saddleman Leads in Automobile Coverings
      • Auto Ventshade Leads in Bug Deflectors
      • Nichols and Haynes Publish Repair Manuals
      • Generalists Rally Strong in Some Segments
      • Superior, Carrand-Chieftain, Peterson Compete in Several Segments
      • Table 4-4: U.S. Automotive Aftermarket: Selected Leading Accessories Marketers and Brands (74 Marketers and Their Brands)
    • Competitive Overview
      • A Dynamic Category
      • Few Brands Make a Name for Themselves
      • Autosound Marketers an Exception to This Rule
      • Marketers Develop Varying Strategies to "Merging Aftermarket"
      • Windshield Wiper Marketers Also Advertise
      • Prestone Demonstrates Marketing Savvy
      • Small Players Seek Alternative Outlets
    • Competitive Focus: Autosound
      • Pioneer the Historic Leader
      • But Company Has Intense Competition
      • Newcomers and Second-Tier Competitors Come On Strong
      • Audiovox Competes in Many Areas
      • Rampage Brand Creation a Smart Move
      • Leading Autosound Marketers Offering Navigational Systems
    • Competitive Focus: Electronic Security
      • Four Market Leaders
      • Technologically Comparable
      • Competition Is Technology Based
      • Code-Alarm's New Products
      • Clifford Electronics' Strategy
      • DEI Invests in R&D, Professional Organizations
      • Audiovox and DEI Diversify Into Other Product Areas
      • Other Electronic Security Marketers
    • Competitive Focus: Radar Detectors
      • Whistler the Leader
      • Three Marketers in Second Place
      • Cobra a Low-Cost Option
      • All Offer X, K, and Ka Band Detection
      • Safety Signals a New Feature
      • Newcomer Valentine One Challenges Leaders
    • Competitive Focus: Custom Wheels
      • American Racing Equipment the Leader
      • But by No Means the Only Player
      • BBS Boasts Successful Racing History
      • Borbet Another German Import
      • Momo and Fittipaldi Are Italy's Leading Imports
      • Growing Market Draws Competitors
    • Marketing and New Product Trends
      • Truck and SUV Accessories a Continuing Trend
      • Interior Accessories Focus on Convenience
      • Invasion of the Cartoon Characters
      • Technology the Name of the Game in Autosound
      • Hi-Tech Face Plates and Visuals
      • Noise Filters, Power Buffers, Other Add-Ons
      • Sophisticated Autosound Security Systems
      • Increasingly Sophisticated Auto Electronics
      • Mobile Video Also Gaining Ground
      • "Electronic Interface"
      • Next Generation Electronic Security
      • Intelligent Transportation Systems
      • Multiplicity of Designs the Trend in Custom Wheels
      • Windshield Wiper Trends
      • Luxury Accessories Perennial Niche Sellers
      • Table 4-5: The U.S. Market for Automotive Accessories: Selected New Product Introductions, 1998-1999
    • Consumer Advertising Expenditures
      • Automotive Accessories Advertising Tops $20 Million
      • Automotive Expenditures Often Difficult to Identify
      • Accessories Marketers Emphasize Print Media
      • Pioneer the Leading Advertiser
      • Valentine One the Second-Ranked Advertiser
      • Several Marketers Tie for Third
      • American Racing Equipment the Leading Wheel Advertiser
      • Sony and Whistler Spend Just Under $1 Million
    • Consumer Advertising Positioning
      • Autosound Marketers Get Blood Pumping
      • Electronics Marketers Emphasize Wizardry
      • Tire Marketers Showcase Their Designs
      • Wiper Marketers Emphasize Easy Installation
      • Anco Uses Humor
      • Functionality Key to Other Product Positionings
      • Examples of Advertising
    • Distribution and Retail
      • Accessories Boast the Broadest Distribution
      • Internet Sources
      • Accessories Account for 25%+ of Auto Retailers' Sales
      • Truck Accessories Approach 50% of Accessory Sales
      • Special Orders Expand Retailer Offerings
      • Margins Average 35%
      • Bedliners
      • Car Covers
      • Cargo Liners
      • Floor Mats
      • Power Tools
      • Seat Covers
      • Tire Inflators
      • Wipers
    • The Consumer
      • Note on Simmons Market Research Bureau Data
      • Simmons Data on Automotive Accessory Purchasers
      • 42% of U.S. Adults Buy Accessories
      • Demographic Overview of an Accessory Purchaser
      • Air Freshener Purchaser Profile
      • Floor Mat Purchaser Profile
      • Headlight Purchaser Profile
      • Windshield Sun Shade Purchasers Present Own Profile
      • Tire Inflator/Sealer Purchaser Presents Classic DIY Profile
      • Steering Wheel Cover Purchaser Profile
      • Seat Cover Purchaser Profile
      • Auto Vacuum Cleaner Purchaser Profile Sketchy
      • Fog Lamp Purchaser Profile Equally Foggy
      • Pacific Residents More Likely to Buy Car Covers
      • Front End Cover Purchasers Remain a Mystery
      • Profile of "Other" Accessory Purchasers
      • Table 4-6: Consumer Overview: Purchase of Automotive Accessories by Type, 1998 (percent, age, income): 12 Classifications, Other
      • Table 4-7: Demographic Characteristics Favoring Purchase of Automotive Accessories, 1998 (U.S. Adults)
      • Table 4-8a: Demographic Characteristics Favoring Purchase of Automotive Accessories by Type, 1998 (U.S. Adults): Air Freshener, Floor Mat, Headlights/Lamps
      • Table 4-8b: Demographic Characteristics Favoring Purchase of Automotive Accessories by Type, 1998 (U.S. Adults): Windshield Sun Shade, Tire Inflator/Sealer, Steering Wheel Cover
      • Table 4-8c: Demographic Characteristics Favoring Purchase of Automotive Accessories by Type, 1998 (U.S. Adults): Seat Cover, Vacuum Cleaner, Fog Lamp
      • Table 4-8d: Demographic Characteristics Favoring Purchase of Automotive Accessories by Type, 1998 (U.S. Adults): Automobile Cover, Front End Cover, Other

    Volume 2

  5. Tires
    • The Products
      • Category Scope
      • Three Basic Types of Tires
      • Bias-Ply Tires
      • Bias-Belted Tires
      • Radial Tires
      • Radials Now the Dominant Tire Type
      • High-Performance Tires Emphasize Traction
      • Treads Are Classified by Weather Compatibility
      • Retreads Confined Mostly to Truck Market
      • Raw Materials Increasingly High-Tech
      • Recycling and Disposal
      • Tire Rating and Labeling
      • Speed Ratings
      • Traction Ratings
      • Temperature Resistance Ratings
      • Treadwear Ratings
      • Figure 5-1: U.S. Retail Sales of Replacement Tires for Passenger Vehicles and Light Trucks, 1995-1999 (dollars)
    • Market Size and Growth
      • Aftermarket Sales Estimated at Over $14 Billion
      • Table 5-1: U.S. Retail Sales of Replacement Tires for Passenger Vehicles and Light Trucks, 1995-1999 (dollars)
      • Unit Tire Sales Up 15% in Last Five Years
      • Table 5-2: U.S. Unit Sales of Replacement Tires for Passenger Vehicles and Light Trucks, 1995-1999
      • Average Tire Price Has Fallen in Last Five Years
    • Market Composition
      • Aftermarket Accounts for Bulk of Tire Shipments
      • Nearly All Tires Sold Are Radials
      • Passenger Tires Dominate Unit Sales
      • All-Season Tires Most Popular
      • Table 5-3: U.S. Unit Sales of Replacement Passenger Tires by Tread Design, 1998 (number): 4 Tread Designs
      • Blackwalls Favored for Sidewall Design
      • Performance Tires Inch Up
      • Sales by Retail Outlet: Independent Tire Dealers Lead
      • Table 5-4: Share of Passenger Tire Sales by Retail Outlet, 1994-1998 (percent): 7 Outlet Types
    • Factors to Market Growth
      • More Cars, More Miles Driven
      • Popularity of Trucks and SUVs Drive Sales
      • But Competition, Over-Capacity Exert Negative Pressure on Prices
      • Global Over-Capacity Affects U.S. Market
      • Longer-Wearing Tires Decrease Unit Sales
      • Oil Prices Affect Tire Sales
      • Run-Flat Tires a Negative Factor in the Long-Term
      • Yet Marketers Anticipate Growth
    • Projected Market Growth
      • Sales to Top $16 Billion by Year 2004
      • Table 5-5: Projected U.S. Retail Sales of Replacement Tires for Passenger Vehicles and Light Trucks, 1999-2004 (dollars)
    • The Marketers
      • Approximately 100 Tire Marketers in the United States
      • Six Major Marketers
      • Second-Tier Marketers Keep Pressure On
      • Goodyear Leads Market with 22% Share
      • Table 5-6: Estimated Retail Share of U.S. Replacement Tire Market, 1998 (percent): 12 Marketers/20 Brands
      • Leading Aftermarket Marketers Also Strong in OE
      • Goodyear Also Leads in OE Market
      • Table 5-7: Estimated Marketer Share of Light Vehicle OE Tire Market, 1998 (percent): 5 Marketers
      • Table 5-8: U.S. Automotive Aftermarket: Selected Leading Tire Marketers and Brands (36 Marketers and Their Brands)
    • Competitive Overview
      • A Competitive Global Market
      • Strong Get Stronger Via Mergers, Acquisitions, and Joint Ventures
      • Technological Advancements Up Competitive Ante
    • Competitive Profile: Bridgestone Corp.
      • Tokyo-based Tire-Maker Outmaneuvered by Goodyear/Sumitomo
      • Rocky U.S. Relations
      • Strengthens Retail Operations
      • Expands Relationships with Carmakers
      • Builds Reputation Through Participation in Car Racing
    • Competitive Profile: Continental AG
      • World's Fourth-Largest Tire-Maker
      • Resists Takeover Attempts by Pirelli
      • Private-Label Strategy Hurt Name Recognition, Quality Perception
      • Heading for Comeback
      • Sets Multi-Million Advertising Budget for 1999
    • Competitive Profile: Cooper Tire & Rubber Co.
      • Marketer Specializes in Replacement Tires
      • Produces Its Own Brands Plus Many Private-Labels
      • Cooper Capitalized on Industry Shakeout
      • Signs Deal with Pirelli in 1999
    • Competitive Profile: Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.
      • Goodyear Going Strong
      • Acquires Kelly-Springfield in 1935
      • Successfully Resists Hostile Takeover Attempt
      • Laser, Automation Technology Reduces Production Time
      • First All-Season Tire-Maker Reintroduces Snow Tires
      • Introduces Aquatred Tire
      • Company to Expand Its Chain of Tire Stores
      • Expands Retail Presence Through Penske and Montgomery Ward Auto Centers
      • Strikes Deal with Sumitomo
      • Offers Tires for Every Type of Consumer
    • Competitive Profile: Michelin
      • The Third-Ranked Tire Marketer
      • An Innovative Tire Company
      • Over-Expansion Creates Problems
      • Pursues OE Business
      • Introduces Improvement to Run-Flat Technology
      • Two Widely Recognized Symbols
      • Michelin Also Produces Private-Label Tires
    • Marketing and New Product Trends
      • Longer-Lasting, All-Season Tires Continuing Trends
      • Specialty Tires a Growing Segment of the Market
      • Truck and SUV Tire Sales Growing
      • Tire-Makers Work on Technology
      • Self-Sealant and Run-Flat Tires
      • Sidewall, Tread Designs
      • Table 5-9: The U.S. Market for Replacement Tires: Selected New Product Introductions, 1998-1999
    • Consumer Advertising Expenditures
      • Leading Tire Marketers Spend Nearly $150 Million on Advertising
      • Goodyear the Top Advertiser
      • Michelin the Second-Highest Spender
      • Bridgestone/Firestone in Third Place
      • No Other Tire Advertiser Comes Close in Spending
      • Unmeasured Expenditures Mainly Racing Sponsorships
    • Consumer Advertising Positioning
      • Performance the Most Common Positioning
      • High Performance Often Linked to Racing
      • Technology Also Emphasized
      • Long Tread Wear
      • Rugged, Aggressive Positionings Chosen for Truck, SUV Tires
      • Self-Sealing, Run-Flat Technology Emphasized
      • Michelin Stresses Safety
      • Overall Value
      • The Comfort of a Smooth (Quiet) Ride
      • Sportstars Occasionally Featured
      • Bridgestone Makes Status Appeal
      • Examples of Advertising
    • Distribution and Retail
      • Tires Typically Follow Three-Step Distribution
      • Retail Competition Is Fierce
      • Size Matters: Larger Outlets Displace Smaller Retailers
      • Ford's Entry Makes Competition That Much Tougher
      • Consolidation a Key Survival Strategy
      • Purchasing Co-ops Another Strategy
      • Tire Dealers Add Other Services
      • The Leading Tire Chains
      • Table 5-10: Leading Tire Retailers by Number of Outlets, 1998 (number): 10 Tire Dealers
      • Leading Mass-Merchandiser/Department Store Chains
    • The Consumer
      • Note on Simmons Market Research Bureau Data
      • Simmons Data on Tire Purchasers
      • Overview of Consumer Patterns
      • Demographic Profile of a Heavy User
      • Profile of a Passenger Tire Purchaser
      • Truck Tire Purchaser More Likely to Be Younger, Male, Blue-Collar
      • Regular and All-Season Most Frequently Purchased Types of Passenger Car Tires
      • All-Season and Light Truck Favored Tire Types for Trucks, SUVs, and Vans
      • Consumers Prefer Blackwall Tires by Narrow Margin
      • Most Tire Purchasers Buy from Tire Dealer
      • Goodyear the Number-One Passenger Car Tire
      • Goodyear Purchaser Profile
      • Michelin Purchaser Is Affluent, Older Male
      • Firestone Purchaser Profile
      • Pickup/SUV/Van Tire Purchasers Present Different Profile
      • Michelin Purchaser Suggests Minivan Mom
      • Largest Percentage of Purchasers Spend $250-$499 on Tires
      • Table 5-11: Consumer Purchasing Overview: Passenger Car Tire vs. Pickup, SUV, or Van Tire, 1998 (percent, age, income): 18 Tire Classifications
      • Table 5-12: Demographic Characteristics Favoring Heavy Use of Tires by Type: Passenger Car Tire vs. Pickup, SUV, or Van Tire, 1998 (U.S. Adults)
      • Table 5-13: Demographic Characteristics Favoring Purchase of Tire by Type: Passenger Car Tire vs. Pickup, SUV, or Van Tire, 1998 (U.S. Adults)
      • Table 5-14: Consumer Purchasing of Tires by Type: Passenger Car Tire vs. Pickup, SUV, or Van Tire, 1998 (percent): 5 Types of Tire
      • Table 5-15: Consumer Purchasing of Tires by Sidewall Design: Passenger Car Tire vs. Pickup, SUV, or Van Tire, 1998 (percent): 5 Types of Tire
      • Table 5-16: Consumer Purchasing of Tires by Where Purchased: Passenger Car Tire vs. Pickup, SUV, or Van Tire, 1998 (percent): 9 Types of Retailer, Other
      • Table 5-17: Consumer Purchasing of Tires by Brand: Passenger Car Tire vs. Pickup, SUV, or Van Tire, 1998 (percent): 19 Brands, Other
      • Table 5-18: Demographic Characteristics Favoring Purchase of Passenger Car Tires by Brand, 1998 (U.S. Adults): Goodyear, Michelin, Firestone
      • Table 5-19: Demographic Characteristics Favoring Purchase of Pickup, SUV, or Van Tires by Brand, 1998 (U.S. Adults): Goodyear, Michelin, BFGoodrich
      • Table 5-20: Consumer Purchasing of Tires by Amount Spent: Passenger Car Tire vs. Pickup, SUV, or Van Tire, 1998 (percent): From Less than $100 to $500+

  6. Motor Oil, Fluids, and Additives
    • The Products
      • Category Scope: Three Product Segments
      • Motor Oil: Lubricates, Seals, Cools, and Cleans
      • Oil Base Most Important Component
      • Motor Oil Ratings
      • Refined vs. Synthetic Motor Oils
      • Recycling Motor Oil
      • Fluids: Necessary for Proper Performance of Vehicle Systems
      • Antifreeze/Coolant
      • Transmission Fluid
      • Brake Fluid
      • Power Steering Fluid
      • Air Conditioning Fluid
      • Differential Fluid
      • Lubricating Greases
      • Additives: Used as Preventive Maintenance and Performance Enhancers
      • Fuel Additives
      • Oil Additives
      • Engine Treatments
      • Sealants
      • Environmental Regulations Affect Motor Oils, Fluids, and Additives
      • Figure 6-1: U.S. Retail Sales of Motor Oil, Fluids, and Additives, 1995-1999 (dollars)
    • The Market
      • 1999 Sales Estimated at $7.0 Billion
      • Table 6-1: U.S. Retail Sales of Motor Oil, Fluids, and Additives by Segment, 1995-1999 (dollars): Motor Oil, Fluids, Additives
      • Motor Oil Accounts for Most of Category Sales
      • Table 6-2: Share of U.S. Automotive Fluid Sales by Segment, 1999 (percent): Motor Oil, Fluids, Additives
      • Sales by Channel
    • Factors to Market Growth
      • Motor Oil Has Steady Growth Prospects
      • A Global Industry Affected by Foreign Markets
      • Longer Drain Intervals on Newer Vehicles
      • Synthetic Motor Oils Might Slow Growth
      • Slow Growth Expected for Other Fluid Sales
      • Shift from DIY to DIFM
      • Leasing
      • Superior Automotive Components
      • Environmental Regulations Have Not Been Draconian
      • Additives' Prospects Fail to Materialize
    • Projected Market Growth
      • Sales to Reach $7.8 Billion by 2004
      • Table 6-3: Projected U.S. Retail Sales of Motor Oil, Fluids, and Additives by Segment, 1999-2004 (dollars): Motor Oil, Fluids, Additives
    • The Marketers
      • Hundreds of Marketers of All Sizes
      • Larger Marketers Compete in All Segments
      • Segment-Specific Breakouts Hard to Come By
      • Pennzoil-Quaker State the Category Leader
      • Ashland Is Second
      • Castrol Ranks Third
      • Mobil Places Fourth
      • Prestone in Fifth Place
      • STP Sixth Overall, But Leading Additives Marketer
      • Several Marketers Compete for Smaller Shares
      • Two Marketers Lead in Motor Oil Segment
      • Table 6-4: Share of Mass-Merchandiser Sales of Motor Oil by Marketer, 1998 (percent): 5 Marketers, Private Label, All Other
      • Three Marketers Lead in Synthetic Motor Oil
      • Automotive Fluids a Fragmented Segment
      • Prestone Leads in Antifreeze/Coolant
      • Private-Label Brands Encroaching
      • Table 6-5: Share of Mass-Merchandiser Sales of Antifreeze by Marketer/Brand, 1998 (percent): 5 Marketers/Brands, Private Label, All Other
      • No More Integrated Suppliers of Antifreeze
      • Pennzoil-Quaker State a Leader in Other Automotive Fluids
      • A Handful of Leading Additive Marketers
      • Table 6-6: U.S. Automotive Aftermarket: Selected Leading Marketers and Brands of Motor Oil, Fluids, and Additives (54 Marketers and Their Brands)
    • Competitive Overview
      • An Increasingly Competitive Market
    • Competitive Situation: Motor Oil
      • Specialists vs. Oil Companies
      • Specialists Lead and Have Made Competitive Gains
      • Oil Companies Facing Severe Competitive Pressures
      • Private Labels Vie for Shelf Space
      • Competing in DIFM and DIY
      • Developing Higher-End Products
      • Specialty Motor Oils a Profitable Niche Product
    • Competitive Situation: Automotive Fluids
      • Prestone Dominates
      • Prestone Sells on Quality
      • Prestone Introduces New Products, Finds New Outlets
      • Prestone Backs Its Products with Advertising
      • Zerex Follows Prestone's Lead
      • Ashland Purchases Zerex
      • A Comprehensive Line of Automotive Fluids
      • Sierra the Leading Brand of Propylene Glycol Antifreeze
      • Quaker State's Purchase of Specialty Oil Doubles Its Lubricants Business
      • STP Also Offers Functional Fluids
      • Texaco Introduces Havoline
      • ILI Develops Seed-Based Lubricants
      • Amrep Another "Green" Marketer
      • Car Manufacturers Drop Opposition to PG-Based Antifreeze
      • Private Label Forces Prices Down
    • Competitive Situation: Automotive Additives
      • First Brands' STP Has Leading Share
      • First Brands Merges with Clorox
      • 28-Year Relationship with NASCAR
      • Pennzoil-Quaker State Glides into Second Place with Addition of Slick 50
      • Quaker State 4x4 Also Competes
      • Valvoline's Pyroil Competes on Price
      • Turtle Wax Enters Additives Segment
      • The Impact of Private Label
      • Segment Attracts Newcomers
      • But May Be Overcrowded
      • Consolidation of Vendors and Products
      • Prolong Supported by Television Launch
      • Granatelli Lubricants Also Broadcasts Launch
    • Marketing and New Product Trends
      • Trends to Synthetics, Niche, and High-Performance Products
      • Conventional Oils Also Performing Better
      • Recycled Motor Oil a Niche Product
      • Switch to Every Day Low Pricing
      • Marketers Extending into Other Categories
      • Consumers Require Education about New Products
      • Targeting the Youth Market
      • Marketing to Hispanics
      • Marketers Offering Retailing Support
      • Table 6-7: The U.S. Market for Motor Oil, Fluids, and Additives: Selected New Product Introductions, 1998-1999
    • Consumer Advertising Expenditures
      • Fluids Advertisers Spend Over $139 Million in 1998
      • Pennzoil-Quaker State the Leading Advertiser
      • Castrol the Second-Ranked Advertiser
      • Ashland in Third Place with Valvoline
      • Oil Companies in Fourth and Fifth Place
      • Prestone Backs Antifreeze
      • Witco, Prolong, and Shell Round Out Top Spenders
      • Fluids Marketers Spend Heavily on Sponsorships
    • Consumer Advertising Positioning
      • Performance Is Most Popular Positioning
      • Protection Linked to Performance
      • Protecting Your Investment
      • Additive Ads Also Tout Preventive Maintenance
      • Reliability an Antifreeze Positioning
      • Examples of Advertising
    • Distribution and Retail
      • Automotive Fluids Have Wide Distribution
      • Car Dealers Join Ranks of Installers
      • Motor Oil Margins Average 22%
      • Motor Oil Frequently Sold as a Loss Leader
      • Antifreeze Has Higher Margins
      • Additives Offer Higher Margins, Require Less Space
      • Fluids Also Sold Through Food Stores and Drugstores
    • The Consumer
      • Note on Simmons Market Research Bureau Data
      • Simmons Data on Purchasers of Automotive Fluids
      • Overview of Consumer Patterns
      • Motor Oil Purchasers Fairly Evenly Distributed Throughout Population
      • Antifreeze Purchasers Mirror Motor Oil Consumers
      • Additive Purchasers Present Similar Profile
      • Where Purchasers Buy Motor Oil
      • Pennzoil the Most Popular Brand
      • Largest Percentage of Purchasers Are DIYers
      • Pennzoil and Quaker State Purchasers
      • Castrol Purchasers Younger, More Diverse
      • Demographic Indicators of Valvoline Purchasers
      • Largest Percentage of Motor Oil Purchasers Are Medium Users
      • Medium, Heavy Users Present Classic DIYer Profile
      • Prestone the Most Popular Antifreeze
      • Most Purchasers Install Antifreeze Themselves
      • Most Antifreeze Purchasers Are Medium Users
      • Antifreeze Heavy User Different from Light User
      • Mature DIYer the Quintessential Prestone Purchaser
      • Zerex Purchasers Present a More Downscale Profile
      • Peak Purchasers Similar to Other Fluid Purchasers
      • Auto Part Stores Capture Most Additive Purchasers
      • STP the Most Popular Brand of Additive
      • Data Afford Insight Into Motives of Gas Additive Purchasers
      • Most Gasoline Additive Purchasers Are Light Users
      • African-Americans Indicated as Heavy Users of Gasoline Additives
      • Gasoline Additive Consumers Present Typical Fluid Purchaser Profile
      • Heavy vs. Light Motor Oil Purchasers
      • Motor Oil Additive Purchasers by Brand
      • Table 6-8: Consumer Overview: Purchase of Automotive Fluids by Type, 1998 (percent, age, income): 4 Types
      • Table 6-9a: Demographic Characteristics Favoring Purchase of Automotive Fluids: Motor Oil vs. Antifreeze, 1998 (U.S. Adults)
      • Table 6-9b: Demographic Characteristics Favoring Purchase of Automotive Fluids: Gasoline Additives vs. Motor Oil Additives, 1998 (U.S. Adults)
      • Table 6-10: Consumer Purchasing of Motor Oil by Where Purchased, 1998 (percent): 8 Outlets, Other
      • Table 6-11: Consumer Purchasing of Motor Oil by Brand Most Often Purchased, 1998 (percent): 19 Brands, Other
      • Table 6-12: Consumer Purchasing of Motor Oil: By Who Adds/Changes, 1998 (percent): 7 Installers, Other
      • Table 6-13a: Demographic Characteristics Favoring Purchase of Motor Oil by Brand: Pennzoil vs. Quaker State, 1998 (U.S. Adults)
      • Table 6-13b: Demographic Characteristics Favoring Purchase of Motor Oil: Castrol vs. Valvoline, 1998 (U.S. Adults)
      • Table 6-14: Demographic Characteristics Favoring Purchase of Motor Oil by Usage Level, 1998 (U.S. Adults): Heavy (18+), Medium (6-17), Light (0-5)
      • Table 6-15: Consumer Purchasing of Antifreeze by Brand, 1998 (percent): 9 Brands, Other
      • Table 6-16: Consumer Purchasing of Antifreeze by Who Adds/Changes, 1998 (percent): 6 Installers, Other
      • Table 6-17: Demographic Characteristics Favoring Purchase of Antifreeze by Annual Usage Level, 1998 (U.S. Adults): Heavy (4+), Medium (2-3), Light (0-1)
      • Table 6-18: Demographic Characteristics Favoring Purchase of Antifreeze by Brand, 1998 (U.S. Adults): Prestone, Zerex, Peak
      • Table 6-19: Consumer Purchasing of Additives by Where Purchased: Gasoline Additives vs. Oil Additives, 1998 (percent): 8 Outlets, Other
      • Table 6-20: Consumer Purchasing of Additives by Brand: Gasoline Additives vs. Oil Additives, 1998 (percent): 6 Brands, Other
      • Table 6-21: Consumer Purchasing of Gasoline Additives: By Reason for Purchase, 1998 (percent): 4 Reasons, Other
      • Table 6-22: Demographic Characteristics Favoring Purchase of Gasoline Additives by Annual Usage Level, 1998 (U.S. Adults): Heavy (6+), Medium (3-5), Light (0-2)
      • Table 6-23: Demographic Characteristics Favoring Purchase of Gasoline Additives by Brand, 1998 (U.S. Adults): STP, Gumout, Slick 50
      • Table 6-24: Demographic Characteristics Favoring Purchase of Motor Oil Additives by Annual Usage Level, 1998 (U.S. Adults): Heavy (3+), Light (0-2)
      • Table 6-25: Demographic Characteristics Favoring Purchase of Motor Oil Additives by Brand: STP vs. Slick 50, 1998 (U.S. Adults)

  7. Batteries
    • The Products
      • Category Scope
      • Battery Design and Materials
      • Cold-Cranking Power
      • Warm-Cranking Power
      • Reserve Capacity
      • Batteries More Sensitive to Heat Than Cold
      • Trend to Maintenance-Free Batteries
      • Dual-Capacity Batteries
      • Warranties for Five to Seven Years
      • Battery Recycling
      • Other Battery Designs
      • Figure 7-1: U.S. Retail Sales of Automotive Replacement Batteries, 1995-1999 (dollars)
    • The Market
      • Market Tops $4 Billion in 1999
      • Table 7-1: U.S. Retail Sales of Automotive Replacement Batteries, 1995-1999 (number and dollars)
      • Largest Percentage of Sales Through Discount/Department Stores
      • Table 7-2: Share of Automotive Replacement Battery Sales by Retail Outlet, 1999 (percent): 7 Types of Retail Outlet, Don't Know, Other
      • Sales Are Seasonal
    • Factors to Market Growth
      • Growth in Vehicle Fleet a Positive
      • Growth in Electronic Components Another Positive
      • Advanced Battery Technology Will Grow Market
      • Electric Vehicles an Elusive Boon
      • Longer-Lasting Batteries Also Slow Growth
    • Projected Market Growth
      • Market to Reach $4.7 Billion by 2004
      • Table 7-3: Projected U.S. Retail Sales of Automotive Replacement Batteries, 1999-2004 (dollars)
    • The Marketers
      • Three Leading Marketers
      • Johnson Controls on Top in U.S. Market
      • Remaining Marketers Account for Much Smaller Shares
      • Majority of Other Marketers' Batteries Made by Top Three
      • Table 7-4: U.S. Automotive Aftermarket: Selected Leading Marketers and Brands of Replacement Batteries (30 Marketers and Their Brands)
    • Competitive Situation
      • Industry Increasingly Competitive
      • Mild Weather Flattens Sales
      • Private-Label Contracts Can Improve Market Share But Ruin Profitability
      • Johnson Controls and Exide Go Head-to-Head
      • Exide Focuses on Aftermarket Brand Strength
      • Johnson Controls Has Many Strong Aftermarket Accounts
      • OE Relationships Give Johnson a Leg Up on Product Development
      • Johnson Reinvests in Own Brand
      • Delco Trades on Strength of Name
      • GNB a Leading Battery Recycler
      • Pacific Dunlop Renews Commitment to GNB
      • Interstate Sells Batteries on Consignment
      • Downward Pressures on Price
      • Competition from Japan
      • Batteries Plus a New Entry to the Retail Scene
    • Competitive Profile: Exide Corporation
      • Exide Refocuses on Profitability
      • "Least-Cost Provider" Strategy Out
      • Orbital Select Battery In
      • Invests in Dual-Graphite Battery Technology
      • America's First Battery Company
      • Exide Builds Brand Awareness Through NASCAR Sponsorship
    • Competitive Profile: Johnson Controls, Inc.
      • Company Makes Strong Gains in 1999
      • Wins Awards from Customers
      • Invests in New Battery Technology
      • Other Businesses
    • Marketing and New Product Trends
      • Trend to Branding
      • Trend to Two-Battery—or Larger Battery—Vehicles
      • Stinger Electronics Markets Supplemental Battery
      • Lighter-Weight Batteries
      • "Smart" Batteries Also Coming
      • Modular Battery Designs
      • Non-Liquid Electrolyte
      • Smaller, Sealed Design Makes New Placements Possible
      • Cylindrical Coils Replace Plates
      • New Batteries Not Just for Luxury Vehicles
      • Dual-Graphite Battery Technology on the Horizon
      • Table 7-5: The U.S. Market for Automotive Replacement Batteries: Selected New Product Introductions, 1998-1999
    • Advertising Trends
      • Consumer Advertising Expenditures Difficult to Assess
      • Top Battery Marketers Spend $27 Million in 1998
      • Sears the Leading Advertiser with DieHard, Exide Number-Two Spender
      • Interstate Places Third in Advertising
      • Duralast Not Heavily Advertised
      • Johnson Controls Fields Little Advertising
      • Consumer Advertising Positioning: Cold-Cranking Ability Still the Most Popular Appeal
      • Racing and Performance Themes
      • Trade Advertising: Battery Marketers Target Retailers
      • Johnson Controls Advertises Testing Conditions of the Energizer
      • Examples of Advertising
    • Distribution and Retail
      • Two Distribution Methods Dominate
      • A Number of Companies Handle Own Distribution
      • Average Gross Margins Have Improved
      • Retailers Carry One or Two Brands
      • SKUs Continue to Drop
      • Floor Space Also Shrinking
    • The Consumer
      • Note on Simmons Market Research Bureau Data
      • 30% of Adults Purchase Batteries
      • Battery Purchaser Profile
      • Majority of Purchases Are DIY
      • Discount/Department Stores Are Preferred Retailers
      • Sears DieHard the Most Popular Brand
      • Battery Purchaser Profile by Brand
      • Light Users vs. Heavy Users
      • Table 7-6: Demographic Characteristics Favoring Purchase of Automotive Replacement Battery, 1998 (U.S. Adults)
      • Table 7-7: Consumer Purchasing of Automotive Replacement Battery by Who Installs, 1998 (percent): 8 Types of Installation, Other
      • Table 7-8: Consumer Purchasing of Automotive Replacement Battery by Where Purchased, 1998 (percent): 11 Types of Retail Outlet, Other
      • Table 7-9: Consumer Purchasing of Automotive Replacement Battery by Brand Most Often Purchased, 1998 (percent): 17 Brands, Other
      • Table 7-10: Demographic Characteristics Favoring Purchase of Automotive Replacement Battery by Brand, 1998 (U.S. Adults): Die Hard, Delco, Interstate
      • Table 7-11: Demographic Characteristics Favoring Purchase of Automotive Replacement Battery: Heavy Purchasers vs. Light Purchasers, 1998 (U.S. Adults)

  8. Appearance Chemicals
    • The Products
      • Category Scope: Four Product Segments
      • Waxes and Polishes
      • Touch-Up Paints and Body Fillers
      • Protectants
      • Washes
      • Figure 8-1: U.S. Retail Sales of Automotive Appearance Chemicals, 1995-1999 (dollars)
    • Market Size and Growth
      • Sales Estimated at $1.8 Billion
      • Table 8-1: U.S. Retail Sales of Automotive Appearance Chemicals by Segment, 1995-1999 (dollars): Wax/Polish, Paint/Body Filler, Protectants, Washes
      • Waxes/Polishes Benefit from New, Easy-to-Use Formulations
      • Paint/Body Fillers Show Strong Growth
      • Protectants Benefit from New OE Designs
      • New Products Also Spur Sales of Washes
    • Market Composition
      • Waxes/Polishes and Paint Each Claim 31% Share
      • Table 8-2: Share of Automotive Appearance Chemical Sales by Segment, 1999 (percent): Wax/Polish, Paint/Body Filler, Protectants, Washes
      • Auto Parts Stores Are Leading Retail Outlet
      • Table 8-3: Share of Automotive Appearance Chemical Sales by Retail Outlet, 1999 (percent): 8 Outlets
    • Factors to Market Growth
      • Fewer Motorists Maintaining Their Vehicles
      • Truck, SUV Owners Among the Exceptions
      • New Products Drive Growth
    • Projected Market Growth
      • Sales to Reach $2.1 Billion by 2004
      • Table 8-4: Projected U.S. Retail Sales of Automotive Appearance Chemicals, 1999-2004 (dollars)
    • The Marketers
      • A Crowded Market
      • Clorox Buys First Place
      • Turtle Wax Second
      • Leading Marketers in Mass Merchandisers
      • Table 8-5: Share of Mass-Merchandiser Sales of Waxes/Polishes by Marketer, 1998 (percent): 4 Marketers, All Other
      • Sherwin-Williams Leads in Paints
      • Other Major Players
      • Table 8-6: U.S. Automotive Aftermarket: Selected Leading Appearance Chemicals Marketers and Brands (25 Marketers and Their Brands)
    • The Competitive Situation
      • Mergers and Acquisitions Strengthen Top Brands
      • Field Becoming Crowded with Newcomers and Line Extensions
      • New Marketers Keep Coming
      • Nu-Finish a Strong Secondary Brand
      • Simoniz Poised for Comeback?
      • Armor All Fields Many New Offerings
      • Turtle Wax Teams Up for Line Extensions
      • Other Turtle Wax Extensions
      • No Touch Seeks Sales Through Tire Dealers
      • Blue Coral Targets Several Demographic Groups and Price Ranges
      • Mother's Pursues Upscale Strategy
      • Sherwin-Williams and Plasti-Kote Are Leading Brands in Touch-Up Paint Segment
      • Bondo the Top Brand of Body Filler
    • Marketing and New Product Trends
      • Easy On/Easy Off Remains Important Feature
      • New Products Mirror Trends in Personal Care, Such as "Clear" and Organic
      • Pleasing Scents Arriving
      • Products Oriented Toward Women
      • Versatility Promoted to Expand Sales Potential
      • Protection from the Elements
      • Color Waxes Still Popular
      • Make Mine Leather
      • Scratch Remover
      • Tire Dressing a Whole New Segment
      • Table 8-7: The U.S. Market for Automotive Appearance Chemicals: Selected New Product Introductions, 1998-1999
    • Consumer Advertising Expenditures
      • Expenditures Estimated at $28 Million in 1998
      • Clorox the Leader
      • Newcomer Kiwi a Surprising Second
      • Television and Magazines Are Favored Media
    • Consumer Advertising Positioning
      • Car Appearance Is Primary Appeal
      • Wet Look Is In
      • Ease of Use Also Emphasized
      • Product Demonstrations Popular
      • Racing a Popular Positioning
      • Protection/Preservation Also Key
      • "Safe for Clear-Coat Finishes"
      • Examples of Advertising
    • Distribution and Retail
      • Appearance Chemicals Widely Distributed
      • Margins Average 40%-50%
      • Turns Are Frequent
      • Display Space/SKUs Up
    • The Consumer
      • Note on Simmons Market Research Bureau Data
      • Simmons Data on Appearance Chemical Purchasers
      • Overview of Consumer Patterns
      • Car Wax Consumers Present Profile of Employed, Adult Male
      • Most Are Medium Users
      • Younger Males Indicated as Heavy Users
      • Turtle Wax the Most Popular Brand
      • Turtle Wax Users
      • Armor All Users Have Distinctive Profile
      • Nu-Finish Users Look Like Older Turtle Wax Users
      • Armor All the Preferred Brand of Protectant
      • Profile of a Protectant User
      • Aftermarket Business Survey Sheds Light on Tire-Care Consumers
      • Nearly 40% of DIYers Willing to Touch Up Paint
      • Table 8-8: Consumer Overview: Purchase of Automotive Appearance Chemicals by Type, 1998 (percent, age, income): 3 Types
      • Table 8-9: Demographic Characteristics Favoring Purchase of Car Wax/Polish, 1998 (U.S. Adults)
      • Table 8-10: Demographic Characteristics Favoring Purchase of Car Wax/Polish by Annual Usage Level, 1998 (U.S. Adults): Heavy, Medium, Light
      • Table 8-11: Consumer Purchasing of Car Wax/Polish by Brand, 1998 (percent): 8 Brands, Other
      • Table 8-12: Demographic Characteristics Favoring Purchase of Car Wax by Brand, 1998 (U.S. Adults): Turtle Wax, Armor All, Nu-Finish
      • Table 8-13: Consumer Purchasing of Leather/Vinyl Protectant by Brand, 1998 (percent): 5 Brands, Other
      • Table 8-14: Demographic Characteristics Favoring Purchase of Leather/Vinyl Protectant by Brand: Armor All vs. STP Son of a Gun!, 1998 (U.S. Adults)

    Appendix I: Advertisements. This appendix appears in bound editions only.
    Appendix II: Addresses of Selected Automotive Aftermarket Companies and Resources