The U.S. African-American Market, 5th Edition

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Published Jan 1, 2004 | 252 Pages | Pub ID: LA888595

Special Offer. Now 25% off the original price of $3500.
This new Packaged Facts report provides an in-depth analysis of African American consumers, who now number more than 37 million. Now in its 5th edition, the report contains an overview of demographic trends within the African American population, including population growth and employment patterns. A series of chapters offer insights into various consumer segments that are driving the African American market. These include affluent African American families, African American women, and African Americans in the trendsetting urban youth market segment. The next section of the report offers an overview of marketing and advertising trends in the African American market and an analysis of media usage by African Americans. The last chapters provide a projection of the growth of African American buying power through 2008, an analysis of the impact of ongoing changes in the geographic distribution of the African American population, and a discussion of key trends and emerging opportunities within the African American market.

Over the past two decades the buying power of African American households has more than doubled and has grown 50% faster than that of the U.S. population as a whole. Other key social and economic indicators—such as homeownership and college enrollment—are also improving at above-average rates for African Americans. Another factor in the rising affluence of African Americans is a noticeable increase in the number of high-income, married-couple African American families. As a result of these long-term trends, more and more African American households are achieving middle- and upper-income status.

Report Methodology
The information in The U.S. African-American Market is based on both primary and secondary research. Primary research involved interviews with experts, public relations and industry analysts in firms that specialize in African-American market research. Secondary research entailed data-gathering from relevant trade, business, and government sources, including company literature. The analysis of consumer demographics derives from Simmons Market Research Bureau survey data for spring 2003.

About the Authors
Dr. Robert Brown and Ms. Ruth Washton have written 17 Packaged Facts reports analyzing demographic trends and marketing strategies in key consumer segments. Topics have ranged from kids to mature consumers to multicultural groups such as Hispanics and African Americans. Dr. Brown and Ms. Washton have co-authored several Financial Times Business Reports on strategic business issues and have provided market and competitor intelligence studies for clients in a variety of industries. Dr. Brown has a B.S. from Georgetown University and a Ph.D. degree from The George Washington University. Ms. Washton has a B.A from Skidmore College and an M.A. from the State University of New York.

What You’ll Get in this Report
Find out how the growing number of affluent African American families is providing attractive opportunities for marketers in a wide range of industries. Learn why African American women are an increasingly attractive segment of the U.S. consumer market. Understand the impact of African American youth on general-market consumer tastes and preferences.

Plus, you’ll benefit from extensive data, presented in easy-to-read and practical charts, tables and graphs.

Scroll down to see a more detailed outline of the contents of this report.

How You Will Benefit from this Report
If your company is already competing in the African-American market, or is considering making the leap, you will find this report invaluable, as it provides a comprehensive package of information and insight not offered in any other single source. You will gain a thorough understanding of the current demographic profile of the African-American market, as well as market growth and trends through 2008. Contributing to that understanding will be a complete analysis of data from published and trade sources, a detailed discussion of the African-American market based on Simmons data, and in-depth examinations of the economic and societal trends that influence the consumer behaviors of African Americans.

This report will help:

  • Marketing Managers identify market opportunities and develop targeted promotion plans for African Americans.
  • Research and development professionals stay on top of competitor initiatives and explore demand for products targeting African Americans.
  • Advertising agencies working with clients in the industries chasing African-Americans to help understand the product buyer to develop messages and images that compel African-Americans to purchase these products.
  • Business development executives understand the dynamics of the market and identify possible partnerships.
  • Information and research center librarians provide market researchers, brand and product managers and other colleagues with the vital information they need to do their jobs more effectively.

Chapter 1: Executive Summary
  • Introduction
    • Background
    • Overview of Report

  • Scope and Methodology
    • Market Definition
    • Methodology

  • Current Population Trends
    • Size of Black Population Depends on How It Is Defined
    • Blacks Account for One in Eight Americans
    • Black Population Will Approach 40 Million in 2008
    • Most Blacks Continue to Live in South

  • Economic Profile
    • Household Income Increased at Above-Average Rate
    • Blacks’ Income and Earnings Higher than Hispanics’
    • Household Income Analyzed
    • Majority of Black Married-Couple Families Have Incomes of $50,000+

  • Household and Family Structure
    • Family Households Predominate
    • African American Kids More Likely to Live with Moms and Grandparents
    • Black Kids as Likely To Be Only Children
    • More African American Kids Have Working Moms

  • Social Indicators
    • African American College Enrollment Continues to Rise
    • Health Profile of African Americans Less Favorable
    • Blacks Most Politically Active Minority Group
    • African Americans More Religious than Other Population Segments

  • Overview of African American Consumers
    • Blacks Spend More on Apparel
    • Food Expenditures Have High Priority
    • More Spent on TVs and Audio Equipment
    • African Americans View Selves as Trendsetters
    • African Americans Like to Shop
    • Brand Switching More Common
    • African American Shoppers Go Out of Their Way to Shop at Favorite Stores
    • Research Suggests African Americans Remain on Other Side of Digital Divide

  • Affluent African American Consumers
    • Number of Affluent Black Households Doubled in Late 1990s
    • Married-Couple Families Predominate among Affluent Blacks
    • More than 9 Million African Americans Live in Affluent Households
    • More Women Work in Affluent Black Families
    • Most Affluent Black Families Have No Children at Home
    • Fewer Financial Services Used
    • Affluent Black Families Above-Average Users of Telecommunications Services
    • Affluent Blacks Remain Underserved

  • African American Women
    • Women Head Nearly Half of Black Households
    • Nearly Half of African American Women Have Attended College
    • Black Women Are Major Earners
    • More than 2 Million African American Women Work as Executives and Managers
    • More than 1.7 Million Black Women Have Above-Average Earnings
    • African American Women Pursue Style and Fashion
    • Black Women Buy More New Clothes
    • Women Key Decision-Makers in African American Households

  • African Americans and the Urban Youth Consumer Culture
    • Hip-Hop Movement Created and Developed by African Americans
    • Urban Youth Culture Now Part of Mainstream
    • African Americans Continue to Drive Urban Youth Culture
    • Trendsetting Young African Americans Influence Lucrative Market Segment
    • Designer Labels Important
    • Owning a New Car Important to Young African Americans
    • More Marketers Turn to Hip-Hop Culture

  • Marketing and Advertising Trends
    • African American Advertising Seen as Changing over Time
    • Celebrities Remain Important
    • Churches Can Be Helpful Grassroots Marketing Partners
    • Bank of America Reaches Out to African American Consumers
    • Blacks Highly Receptive to TV Advertising
    • Coca-Cola Looks to Young Trendsetting African Americans
    • U.S. and Japanese Automakers Target Multicultural Buyers

  • African Americans and the Media
    • African Americans Look to Magazines
    • New Magazines Target Affluent Segment
    • Black Newspapers Struggle to Survive
    • African Americans Focus on Television
    • Movie Channels Major Draw for Black Viewers
    • Urban Contemporary Tops List of Radio Formats
    • Internet Changes Media Usage Habits
    • African Americans More Likely to Download Music Files

  • African American Buying Power
    • African Americans Responsible for Increasing Share of Total Consumer Expenditures
    • Buying Power of Black Women Will Increase 35.2%
    • Buying Power of Affluent African Americans Will Reach $479 Billion
    • African American Buying Power Will Exceed $900 Billion in 2008

  • Geographic Trends in the African American Market
    • Migration to South Continues
    • Blacks Join Exodus to Suburbs
    • Suburban Growth Creates New African American Market Segment

  • Trends and Opportunities in the African American Market
    • Shift in “Ethnic Marketing” Underway
    • Parameters of African American Marketing Start to Blur
    • Multicultural Approach Needs Right Perspective
    • Growing Diversity of Black Population Affects Marketing Strategies
    • Upward Mobility by African Americans Creates More Possibilities for Marketers
    • African American Consumers Still Represent Untapped Market

  • Section 1: The African American Population Today

Chapter 2: Current Population Trends

  • Race and African American Identity
    • Black Population Subject to Complex Definitions
    • Size of Black Population Depends on How It Is Defined
    • Table 2-1: Profile of the Black Population of the United States, by Race Alone and Hispanic Origin
    • Nearly 3 Million Blacks Are Foreign-Born
    • Table 2-2: Foreign-Born Population, by Race and Hispanic Origin
    • Table 2-3: Immigration from Selected Countries, 1981-2002

  • Population Growth Patterns
    • Blacks Account for One in Eight Americans
    • Table 2-4: U.S. Population by Race and Hispanic Origin
    • Black Population Will Approach 40 Million in 2008
    • Table 2-5: Population Growth, Blacks vs. Other Population Groups, April 2000 to July 2002
    • Table 2-6: Projected Population Growth, African Americans vs. Other Population Groups, 2003-2008
    • Table 2-7: African Americans and Other Population Groups as Percent of U.S. Population, 2003-2008

  • Age and Gender
    • Black Population Skews Younger than Average
    • Table 2-8: Population by Age Group, African Americans vs. Other Population Groups
    • Table 2-9: African Americans as Percent of Total Population by Selected Age Group
    • African American Women Significantly Outnumber Men
    • Table 2-10: Population by Gender, African Americans vs. Other Population Groups

  • Geographic Distribution of the African American Population
    • Most Blacks Continue to Live in South
    • Table 2-11: African American Population by Region
    • Table 2-12: African Americans as Percent of Total Population of Region
    • New York Has Largest Black Population
    • Table 2-13: States with Largest African American Populations
    • Southern States Have Highest Proportion of Blacks
    • Table 2-14: States with Highest Percentage of African Americans
    • Hispanic Blacks Concentrated in Handful of States
    • Table 2-15: States with the Largest Populations of Hispanic Blacks
    • Table 2-16: Hispanic Blacks as Percentage of Total Black Population, by State
    • Southern and Border States Least Likely to Have Multicultural Orientation
    • Table 2-17: Non-Hispanic Blacks Alone as Percentage of Total Black Population, by State)
    • More Blacks Live in Central Cities
    • Table 2-18: African American Population by Metropolitan vs. Non-Metropolitan Residence

Chapter 3: Economic Profile

  • Income Levels
    • Household Income Increased at Above-Average Rate
    • Table 3-1: Aggregate Household Income, African Americans vs. Other Population Groups, 1981 vs. 2002
    • Blacks’ Income and Earnings Higher than Hispanics’
    • Table 3-2: Mean Income of People 15 Years and Over, African Americans vs. Other Population Groups
    • Table 3-3: Earnings of Full-Time, Year-Round Workers 15 Years and Over, African Americans vs. Other Population Groups
    • Household Income Analyzed
    • Table 3-4: Mean Household and Family Income, African Americans vs. Other Population Groups
    • Table 3-5: Income per Household Member, African Americans vs. Other Population Groups
    • Table 3-6: Total Money Income of Households by Type, African Americans vs. Other Population Groups
    • Majority of Black Married-Couple Families Have Incomes of $50,000+
    • Table 3-7: Total Money Income of Families by Type, African Americans vs. Other Population Groups
    • Most African American Families Own Homes
    • Table 3-8: Tenure by Household Type, African Americans vs. Other Population Groups
    • Number of African American Homeowners Grows at Faster Rate
    • Table 3-9: Number of Homeowners, African Americans vs. Other Population Groups, 1994-2002
    • Table 3-10: Growth in Number of New Homeowners, African Americans vs. Others, 1995-2002

  • Employment and Occupational Patterns
    • More Black Women in Labor Force
    • Table 3-11: Labor Force Status, African Americans vs. Other Population Groups
    • Table 3-12: Employment Status of the Population 16 Years of Age and Over, by Race and Hispanic Origin, 2002 51Chapter 3: Economic Profile [Cont.]
    • African Americans More Likely to Work in Public Sector
    • Table 3-13: Class of Worker, African Americans vs. Other Population Groups
    • One in Five Blacks Holds Managerial or Professional Position
    • Table 3-14: Occupations, African Americans vs. Other Population Groups, 2002
    • Women More Likely to Hold Managerial and Professional Jobs
    • Table 3-15: Leading Occupations of African American Men and Women

Chapter 4: Household and Family Structure

  • Overview
    • Family Households Predominate
    • Table 4-1: Household Type, African Americans vs. Other Population Groups
    • Black Families Smaller than Hispanic and Asian Families
    • Table 4-2: Size of Family Households, African Americans vs. Other Population Groups

  • The Family Environment of African American Kids
    • Kids Comprise Above-Average Share of Black Population
    • Table 4-3: Under-18 Population by Selected Age Group, African Americans vs. Other Population Groups
    • African American Kids More Likely to Live with Moms
    • Table 4-4: Marital Status of Parents and Living Arrangements of Children, African American Children vs. Other Children
    • Many Black Kids Live with Grandparents
    • Table 4-5: Children Living with Grandparents and Other Adults, African American Children vs. Other Children
    • Table 4-6: African American Children Living with Grandparents
    • African American Grandparents Play Major Childrearing Role
    • Table 4-7: Grandparents Living with Grandchildren, by Race and Hispanic Origin
    • Black Kids as Likely To Be Only Children
    • Table 4-8: Presence of Siblings in Families, African Americans vs. Other Population Groups
    • Younger Parents More Common
    • Table 4-9: Age of Parents, African American Children vs. Other Children,2002
    • African American Parents More Likely Than Other Minority Groups Be High School Graduates
    • Table 4-10: Education of Parents, African American Children vs. Other Children
    • More African American Kids Have Working Moms
    • Table 4-11: Labor Force Status of Parents, African American Children vs. Other Children, 2002
    • Table 4-12: Stay-at-Home Moms in Married-Couple Families with Children under 15, African American Children vs. Other Children
    • Nearly 3.3 Million Black Children Live in Families with $50,000+ Incomes
    • Table 4-13: Income of Families with Children, African American Children vs. Other Children
    • Table 4-14: Mean Income of Married-Couple Families with Children, African Americans vs Other Population Groups

Chapter 5: Social Indicators

  • Educational Attainment
    • 3.4 Million African Americans Are College Graduates
    • Table 5-1: Educational Attainment of the Population 25 Years and Over, African Americans vs. Other Population Groups
    • Educational Gender Gap Seen Reversed among Blacks
    • Table 5-2: Educational Attainment of Men 25 Years and Over, African Americans vs. Other Population Groups
    • Table 5-3: Educational Attainment of Women 25 Years and Over, African Americans vs. Other Population Groups
    • African American College Enrollment Continues to Rise
    • Table 5-4: Enrollment Rates in Degree-Granting Institutions, by Race and Hispanic Origin, Selected Years, 1972-2001
    • Table 5-5: Enrollment in Degree-Granting Institutions, by Race and Hispanic Origin, 1980 vs. 2000
    • Table 5-6: Degrees Earned by African Americans, 1981 vs. 2000
    • Historically Black Colleges and Universities Continue to Play Major Role
    • Table 5-7: Enrollment in Historically Black Colleges and Universities, 2000
    • College Completion Affects Employment Rates

  • Health Status
    • Health Profile of African Americans Less Favorable
    • Table 5-8: Key Indicators of Health for U.S. Adults, by Race and Hispanic Origin, 2002
    • Above-Average Risks Seen in Numerous Areas
    • Access to Health Insurance and Medical Care Problematic
    • Table 5-9: Access to Health Insurance and Medical Care, by Race and Hispanic Origin, 2002
    • Study Finds Improvement in African American Health

  • Political and Social Values
    • Blacks Most Politically Active Minority Group
    • Table 5-10: Participation in 2000 Election, by Race and Hispanic Origin
    • African American Political Views Differ
    • Table 5-11: Political Profile of African Americans
    • African Americans More Religious than Other Population Segments
    • Social Views More Liberal
    • Table 5-12: Selected Social Values of African Americans

  • Section 2: Understanding the African American Consumer

Chapter 6: Overview of African American Consumers

  • Profile of African American Consumer Units
    • Consumer Units Defined
    • Black Households Spend More of Income
    • Table 6-1: Expenditures of African American Consumer Units as Percent of Before-Tax Income
    • Black Consumer Units Larger than Average
    • Table 6-2: Characteristics of Consumer Units, African American Consumer Units vs. Other Consumer Units

  • African American Consumer Expenditure Patterns
    • Blacks Spend More on Apparel
    • Table 6-3: Annual Expenditures for Apparel and Services by Percent of Total Expenditures, African Americans vs. Other Consumer Units
    • Most Automotive Expenditures Similar to Those of Other Consumers
    • Table 6-4: Annual Expenditures by African American Consumers for Vehicle Purchases and Related Expenses as Percent of Total Expenditures
    • Food Expenditures Have High Priority
    • Table 6-5: Annual Expenditures by Consumer Units for Food and Beverages, by Amount and as Percent of Total Consumer Expenditures, African Americans vs. Other Consumer Units
    • Table 6-6: Annual Expenditures by Consumer Units for Selected Categories of Food at Home, African Americans vs. Other Consumer Units
    • More Spent on TVs and Audio Equipment
    • Table 6-7: Annual Expenditures by Consumer Units for Entertainment, African Americans vs. Other Consumer Units
    • Black Households Spend on Furniture
    • Table 6-8: Annual Expenditures by Consumer Units for Household Furnishings and Equipment, by Amount and as Percent of Total Consumer Expenditures, African Americans vs. Others
    • Health Care Expenditures Below Average
    • Table 6-9: Annual Expenditures for Health Care by Percent of Total Expenditures, African Americans vs. Other Consumer Units

  • Shopping Behavior and Buying Patterns
    • African Americans View Selves as Trendsetters
    • Table 6-10: African Americans as Trendsetters, by Gender
    • Blacks Shop with Friends
    • Table 6-11: African American Attitudes toward Shopping as a Social Experience, by Gender
    • African Americans Like to Shop
    • Table 6-12: African Americans and the Importance of Shopping, by Gender
    • Low Prices Not Necessarily Most Important Draw for Black Shoppers
    • Table 6-13: Price Sensitivity of African Americans, by Gender
    • Brand Switching More Common
    • Table 6-14: Brand Loyalty of African Americans, by Gender
    • African American Shoppers Go Out of Their Way to Shop at Favorite Stores
    • Table 6-15: African Americans’ Criteria for Selecting Stores, by Gender
    • African American Consumers Take Their Time in Stores
    • Table 6-16: In-Store Shopping Behavior of African Americans, by Gender

  • African Americans and the Internet
    • Research Suggests African Americans Remain on Other Side of Digital Divide
    • Table 6-17: Use of Internet by African Americans, by Gender
    • African American Lives Less Affected by Internet
    • Table 6-18: Impact of the Internet on African American Lifestyles, by Gender
    • Blacks Less Likely to Shop Online
    • Table 6-19: Online Activities of African Americans, by Gender

Chapter 7: Affluent African American Consumers

  • Overview of Affluent African Americans
    • Number of Affluent Black Households Doubled in Late 1990s
    • Figure 7-1: Number of African American Households with Incomes of $60,000 or More, 1995 vs. 2003
    • Nearly 2.8 Million Households Have $60,000+ Incomes
    • Table 7-1: African American Households with Incomes of $60,000 or More, by Income Level
    • Affluent Black Households Control More than Half of Aggregate Income
    • Table 7-2: Aggregate Income of African American Households, Affluent vs. Other Households Married-Couple Families Predominate among Affluent Blacks
    • Table 7-3: African American Households with Incomes of $60,000 or More, by Type of Household
    • More than 9 Million African Americans Live in Affluent Households
    • Table 7-4: Number of People Living in African American Households, by Income Level
    • Table 7-5: Profile of People Living in African American Households with Incomes of $60,000 or More
    • African Americans in Wide Range of High-Income Jobs
    • Table 7-6: Aggregate Income of African Americans with High-Paying Occupations, by Occupation
    • Relatively Few Affluent Households Found in Deep South
    • Table 7-7: States with Largest Number of Affluent African American Households
    • One in Seven Affluent African American Households Are in New York Metro Area
    • Table 7-8: Metropolitan Areas with Largest Number of Affluent African American Households

  • Profile of Affluent African American Families
    • Number of Married-Couple Families Grew 10% in Late 1990s
    • Figure 7-2: Number of African American Married-Couple Families, 1995 vs. 2003
    • More Women Work in Affluent Black Families
    • Table 7-9: African American Families with Incomes of $60,000 and Over, by Type of Family
    • Fig. 7-3: Percent of Married-Couple Families with Incomes of $60,000 and Over with Wife in Paid Labor Force, African Americans vs. Other Population Groups
    • Most Affluent Black Families Have Children at Home
    • Table 7-10: African American Families with Incomes of $60,000 and Over, by Presence of Related Children under 18 Years
    • Kids Affect Brand Choices of Affluent Couples
    • Table 7-11: Family Attitudes toward Shopping with Their Kids
    • Affluent Black Couples Differ in Financial Management Views
    • Table 7-12: Attitudes of Affluent Couples toward Personal Financial Management, African Americans vs. Others
    • Fewer Financial Services Used
    • Table 7-13: Affluent African American Married Couples, Use of Financial Services
    • “Wealth Gap” Explains Behavioral Differences
    • Black Investors Choose Real Estate over Stock Market
    • Affluent Black Families Underserved by Home Electronics Marketers
    • Table 7-14: Affluent Family Attitudes toward Home Electronics, African Americans vs. Others
    • Table 7-15: Affluent Family Ownership of Home Electronics, African Americans vs. Others
    • Affluent Black Families Above-Average Users of Telecommunications Services
    • Table 7-16: Affluent Black Married Couples, Use of Telecommunications Services
    • Luxury and Looks Main Criteria When Choosing Cars
    • Table 7-17: Affluent Family Attitudes toward Automobiles
    • High-Income Blacks Aspire to Buy New Cars
    • Table 7-18: Affluent African American Family Consumer Attitudes, New vs. Used Cars
    • One-Car Households More Common
    • Table 7-19: Affluent African American Families, Vehicle Ownership Patterns
    • Foreign Cars Preferred
    • Table 7-20: Affluent African American Family Attitudes: Foreign vs. Domestic Cars

  • Strategic Implications
    • Growing Black Middle Class Creates New Opportunities
    • Affluent Blacks Remain Underserved
    • Rising Incomes Will Eventually Affect Financial Behavior

Chapter 8: African American Women

  • Demographic Overview
    • More Women in Black Population
    • Table 8-1: Population by Gender, African Americans vs. Other Population Groups
    • Black Women Less Likely to Marry
    • Table 8-2: Marital Status of 15- to 44-Year-Old Women by Age Group, African Americans vs. Other Population Groups
    • Table 8-3: Women Who Have Never Had Children, by Age and Race and Hispanic Origin
    • Women Head Nearly Half of Black Households
    • Table 8-4: Households Headed by Women, African Americans vs. Other Population Groups
    • Nearly Half of African American Women Have Attended College
    • Table 8-5: Educational Attainment of Women 25 Years and Over, African Americans vs. Other Population Groups
    • Black Women Are Major Earners
    • Table 8-6: Aggregate Income of Women, African Americans vs. Other Population Groups
    • African American Women More Likely to Be in Labor Force
    • Table 8-7: Women in the Labor Force, African Americans vs. Other Population Groups
    • More than 2 Million African American Women Work as Executives and Managers
    • Table 8-8: Leading Occupations of African American Women
    • Table 8-9: Top 10 Industries Employing African American Women
    • More than 1.7 Million Black Women Have Above-Average Earnings
    • Table 8-10: Earnings of Full-Time, Year-Round Female Workers 15 Years and Over, African Americans vs. Other Population Groups
    • Single Women Predominate in Upper Income Brackets
    • Table 8-11: African American Women Aged 18 and Over with Incomes of $35,000 or More, by Income Level and Marital Status

  • Consumer Profile
    • Advertisers Find Highly Receptive Audience among African American Women
    • Table 8-12: Attitudes of African American Women toward Advertising
    • African American Women Pursue Style and Fashion
    • Table 8-13: Attitudes of African American Women toward Fashion and Style
    • Black Women Buy More New Clothes
    • Table 8-14: Attitudes of African American Women toward Shopping and Buying Clothes
    • Clothing Brands Get Less Attention
    • Table 8-15; Attitudes of African American Women toward Apparel Brands
    • Use of Cosmetics Shows Differences
    • Table 8-16: Use of Cosmetics by African American Women
    • Table 8-17: Use of Hair-Care Products by African American Women
    • African American Women Feel Less Guilty about Food
    • Table 8-18: Attitudes of African American Women toward Nutrition and Dieting
    • African American Women Favor Tried-and-True Foods
    • Table 8-19: Attitudes of African American Women toward Food and Cooking

  • Strategic Implications
    • Women Are Powerful Economic Force in African American Market
    • Women Key Decision-Makers in African American Households
    • Some Experts See Marketers Ignoring African American Women

Chapter 9: African Americans and the Urban Youth Consumer Culture

  • Overview
    • Hip-Hop at Center of Urban Youth Culture
    • Hip-Hop Movement Created and Developed by African Americans
    • Urban Youth Culture Now Part of Mainstream
    • African Americans Continue to Drive Urban Youth Culture
    • Young African Americans Remain Central Force in Urban Settings
    • Table 9-1: Metropolitan Areas by Population of 15- to 24-Year-Old African Americans
    • Income of Young African Americans Nears $100 Billion
    • Table 9-2: Aggregate Income of 15- to 29-Year-Old African Americans, by Gender and Age Group
    • Trendsetting Young African Americans Influence Lucrative Market Segment
    • Figure 9-1: Aggregate Income of 15- to 29-Year-Olds, African Americans vs. Other Population Groups

  • Young African Americans as Trendsetters
    • Style and Fashion Key Element of Culture
    • Table 9-3: Attitudes of 18- to 29-Year-Olds toward Fashion and Style, African Americans vs. Others
    • Buying New Clothes Has High Priority
    • Table 9-4: Attitudes of 18- to 29-Year-Olds toward Shopping for Clothes, African Americans vs. Others
    • Designer Labels Important
    • Table 9-5: Attitudes of 18- to 29-Year-Olds toward Apparel Brands, African Americans vs Others
    • Under-30 African Americans Aspire To Be First to Buy Latest Electronic Equipment
    • Table 9-6: Attitudes of 18- to 29-Year-Olds toward Consumer Electronics, African Americans vs. Others
    • Table 9-7: Ownership of Consumer Electronics by 18- to 29-Year-Olds, African Americans vs. Others
    • More Telecommunications Services Used
    • Table 9-8: Use of Telecommunications Products and Services by 18- to 29-Year-Olds, African Americans vs. Others7
    • Owning a New Car Important to Young African Americans
    • Table 9-9: Vehicle Ownership Patterns of 18- to 29-Olds, African Americans vs. Others
    • Table 9-10: Attitudes of 18- to 29-Year-Olds toward New Cars, African Americans vs Others
    • Foreign Cars Have More Prestige
    • Table 9-11: Attitudes of 18- to 29-Olds, Foreign vs. Domestic Cars, African Americans vs. Others

    Key Trends and Strategic Implications
    • Urban Labels Start to Break into Mass Channels
    • Hip-Hop Seen as Fastest Growing Radio Format
    • More Marketers Turn to Hip-Hop Culture

Chapter 10: Marketing and Advertising Trends

  • Overview
    • African American Advertising Seen as Changing over Time
    • Ads Viewed as Having More Leeway
    • Negative Stereotyping Remains Sensitive Issue
    • Advertisers Still Walk Fine Line
    • Celebrities Remain Important
    • Grassroots Marketing Key Component of Strategies
    • Churches Can Be Helpful Grassroots Marketing Partners
    • Film Festivals Draw Advertisers’ Attention

  • Marketing and Promotional Approaches
    • Cognac Importers Compete for Young African American Market
    • Bacardi Looks to Affluent African Americans
    • Bank of America Reaches Out to African American Consumers
    • Kmart Caters to Urban Multicultural Customers
    • Avon Seeks to Increase Number of African American Sales Reps

  • Advertising Strategies and Campaigns
    • African Americans See Benefits of Advertising
    • Table 10-1: Attitudes of African Americans toward Advertising, by Gender
    • Blacks Highly Receptive to TV Advertising
    • Table 10-2: Attitudes of African Americans toward Television Ads, by Gender
    • Print Advertising Rated Highly
    • Table 10-3: Attitudes of African Americans toward Print Advertising, by Gender
    • Outdoor Ads Capture African Americans’ Attention
    • Table 10-4: Attitudes of African Americans toward Outdoor Advertising, by Gender
    • Coca-Cola Looks to Young Trendsetting African Americans
    • P&G Seeks Synergy between General-Market and African American Campaigns
    • Big Three Automakers Target Multicultural Buyers
    • Japanese Automakers Reach Out to Diverse Urban Youth Market

Chapter 11: African Americans and the Media

  • Print
    • African Americans Value Magazines
    • Table 11-1: African American Attitudes toward Print Media, by Gender
    • Black-Oriented Magazine Titles Most Popular Category
    • Table 11-2: Magazines Popular with African Americans, by Gender
    • New Magazines Target Affluent Segment
    • Vanguarde Media Closes Three Magazines
    • Black Newspapers Struggle to Survive

  • Television and Radio
    • African Americans Focus on Television
    • Table 11-3: African American Attitudes toward Television, by Gender
    • Movie Channels Major Draw for Black Viewers
    • Table 11-4: Cable TV Services Popular with African Americans
    • Show Preferences Similar to Population as a Whole
    • Table 11-5: Types of Network Primetime TV Shows Popular with African Americans
    • Fox Draws Most Black Viewers
    • Table 11-6: Broadcast Network Viewing by African Americans
    • New Cable Network Targets African American Adults
    • 24-Hour Black News Channel Launched
    • Radio Important Entertainment Medium
    • Table 11-7: African American Attitudes toward Radio, by Gender
    • Urban Contemporary Tops List of Radio Formats
    • Table 11-8: Radio Formats Popular with African Americans
    • Competition Intensifies in Urban Radio Format

  • New Media
    • Internet Changes Media Usage Habits
    • Table 11-9: Impact of Internet on Media Usage by American Americans, by Gender
    • African Americans More Likely to Download Music Files
    • Table 11-10: Use of Online Media by African Americans, by Gender
    • America Online Launches “AOL Black Focus”

    Section 4: African American Market Trends

Chapter 12: African American Buying Power

  • Aggregate Consumer Expenditures
    • African Americans Responsible for Increasing Share of Total Consumer Expenditures
    • Table 12-1: Aggregate Consumer Expenditures, African Americans vs. Other Population Groups, 1998 vs. 2002
    • Expenditures on Food Total $37 Billion
    • Table 12-2: Aggregate Annual Expenditures by African American Consumer Units for Food and Beverages
    • Black Households Form Major Market for Household Appliances
    • Table 12-3: Aggregate Annual Expenditures by African American Consumer Units for Household Furnishings and Equipment
    • Apparel Expenditures Top $23 Billion
    • Table 12-4: Aggregate Annual Expenditures by African American Consumer Units for Apparel
    • Auto Purchases Exceed $33 Billion
    • Table 12-5: Aggregate Annual Expenditures by African American Consumer Units for Vehicle Purchases and Related Expenses
    • Home Electronics Products Generate High Interest among Black Consumers
    • Table 12-6: Aggregate Annual Expenditures by African American Consumer Units for Entertainment
    • Personal-Care Products Expenditures Total $6.6 Billion
    • Table 12-7: Aggregate Annual Expenditures by African American Consumers for Personal- Care Products and Services, Reading Materials, and Education

  • African American Buying Power
    • Buying Power Used as Measure of African American Market
    • Scope of African American Market Subject to Interpretation
    • Table 12-8: Size of the African American Population, by Racial Category and Hispanic Origin
    • Buying Power of Black Women Will Increase 35.2%
    • Table 12-9: Projected Growth in Buying Power of African American Women15 Years of Age and Over, 2003-2008
    • Buying Power of Affluent African Americans Will Reach $479 Billion
    • Table 12-10: Projected Growth in Buying Power of Affluent African Americans, 2003-2008
    • African American Buying Power Will Exceed $900 Billion in 2008
    • Table 12-11: Projected Growth in African American Buying Power, 2003-2008

Chapter 13: Geographic Trends in the African American Market

  • Leading Geographic Markets
    • New York Metro Area Most Lucrative Market
    • Table 13-1: Aggregate Household Income of African Americans in Top 25 Metropolitan Areas
    • Washington, D.C. Has Highest Median Household Income
    • Table 13-2: Leading African American Metro Markets, by Median Household Income

  • Key Geographic Trends
    • More than Two Million Blacks Made Interstate Moves in Late 90s
    • Table 13-3: Migration of Black Population within the United States, 1995 to 2000
    • Migration to South Continues
    • Table 13-4: Domestic Migration by Blacks by Region and Census Division, 1995 to 2000
    • Georgia and North Carolina Show Largest Gains from Domestic Migration
    • Table 13-5: States with Largest Gains from Migration by Blacks, 1995 to 2000
    • Black Population Grew Faster in South
    • Figure 13-1: Rate of Population Growth in the South 1990-2000, African Americans vs. Other Population Groups
    • Florida Shows Most Growth between 2000 and 2002
    • Table 13-6: States with Fastest-Growing African American Populations, April 2000-July 2002
    • Blacks Join Exodus to Suburbs
    • Table 13-7: African American Population, Metropolitan vs. Non-Metropolitan Residence, 1995 vs. 2002
    • Table 13-8: Suburban Population Growth 1995 vs. 2002, by Race
    • Suburban Blacks Relatively More Affluent
    • Table 13-9: Mean Income of Central City vs. Suburban Residents, Blacks vs. Population Groups
    • Residential Segregation Declines
    • Table 13-10: Trends in Residential Segregation of African Americans in Metropolitan Areas, 1980-2000

  • Strategic Implications
    • Suburbs Begin to Reflect Multicultural Profile of America
    • Suburban Growth Creates New African American Market Segment
    • Table 13-11: Aggregate Income of African American Families, Central City vs. Suburban

Chapter 14: Trends and Opportunities in the African American Market

  • Key Trends
    • Shift in “Ethnic Marketing” Underway
    • Parameters of African American Marketing Start to Blur
    • Multicultural Approach Needs Right Perspective
    • Growing Diversity of Black Population Affects Marketing Strategies

  • Emerging Opportunities
    • Upward Mobility of African Americans Creates More Possibilities for Marketers
    • Central-City African Americans Key Segment
    • Many African American Consumers Still Represent Untapped Market

Appendix: Addresses of Selected U.S. African American Market Resources

  • Advertising/Marketing
  • Publications
  • Other Media