The African American Market

Published: Dec 1, 1999 - 267 Pages

Table of Contents:

  1. Executive Summary
    Background
    Overview of Report

      Scope and Methodology
      Scope of Report Methodology

      Demographics
      Black Population Grew Faster Than the General Population During 1990s
      African Americans Remain Largest Minority Group
      Table 1-1: Past, Present, and Projected U.S. Ethnic Mix, 1990-2010
      Number of African Americans Will Increase 13% in Next Decade
      African American Population Includes Many Segments
      Black Population Is Concentrated in Relatively Few Localities
      African American Households Are Younger and Larger Than White Households
      Traditional African American Families Number Nearly Three Million Household Income Gains
      Per Capita Income Grows More Than Other Groups
      Affluent African Americans Become Significant Economic Force
      Number of African Americans in Poverty Declines
      African American Unemployment Rate Drops
      Education Gap Narrows
      Health Insurance Coverage Elusive
      Partisan Affiliation Declines but Support for Democratic Candidates Continues
      African Americans Have Conservative Social Values and Diverse Political Views
      African Americans Are Highly Religious

      The Market
      Significant Growth Anticipated
      The Most Affluent African American Households Have Annual Income of $110 Billion
      African American College Graduates Have a Strong Economic Profile
      African Americans Represent Multi-Billion-Dollar Consumer Market
      The African American Market Is Concentrated
      Suburbs and Rural Areas Show Strongest Growth
      Conditions Potentially Inhibiting Growth in the African American Market

      African Americans as Consumers
      African Americans Enjoy Shopping
      African American Expenditure Patterns Are Distinct
      Food Spending Differs
      African Americans Buy More Apparel and Footwear
      Expenditures for Personal-Care Products Are Substantially Above Average
      Furniture and Home Appliances Are Priority Purchases
      PC Ownership in Black Households Increases at Rapid Rate

      African American Media
      Blacks Spend More Time Watching TV
      TV Viewing Habits Differ
      African American Viewers Favor Cable
      Radio Listening Is High
      African American Teens Reached on Radio
      African Americans Depend on Print Media
      Affluent African American Households Are Heavy Users of the Internet

      Marketing to African Americans
      Mainstream Marketing Often Misses African American Consumer
      Success Requires Company-Wide Commitment
      African Americans Are Not a Monolithic Market
      Ongoing Promotion Is Vital
      Advertisers Still Use Specialized Ad Shops
      "Urban Style" and Black Culture Enter the General Market
      Street Marketing and Peer Influence Appeal to Young, Urban Consumers Relationship Marketing Is Key

      Examples of Advertising Targeted to African Americans
      Images of Achievement
      Exceptional Women
      African American Moms
      Young Families
      Urban Scenes
      The African American Heritage

  2. Demographics
    Figure 2-1: Projected Growth of African American Population, 1999- 2003
    Figure 2-2: U.S. Ethnic Mix, 1999 vs. 2008

      Market Definition: African Americans
      African Americans Defined
      Limitations of Census Classifications of Race and Ethnicity
      Scope of the Analysis

      Population Size and Growth
      Black Population Grew Faster Than the General Population During 1990s
      Hispanic Black Population Increases the Most
      African Americans Remain Largest Minority Group
      Table 2-1: Past, Present, and Projected U.S. Ethnic Mix, 1990-2010
      Number of African Americans Will Increase 13% in Next Decade
      Table 2-2: Projected Growth of Total U.S. and African American Populations, 1999-2003
      Black Female Immigrants Have Higher Birth Rates

      Ethnicity and National Origin
      Historical Origins of African Americans
      African American Population Includes Many Segments
      Two Million African Americans Are Foreign-Born
      Table 2-3: Non-Hispanic African American Immigration Trends, 1992 to 1997
      Hispanic Blacks Form the Largest Group of Foreign-Born African Americans
      Census 2000 Likely to Count Many More Afro-Caribbean Immigrants
      Haitians Form Major Population Bloc
      Afro-Caribbean Immigrants Have Major Impact in Florida
      Florida Localities Affected by Haitian Immigration
      New Law Legalizes Status of Many Haitian Immigrants
      West Indian Immigrants Gain in Importance

      Geographic Distribution
      Black Population Is Concentrated in Relatively Few Localities
      Table 2-4: States with Largest African American Population, 1997
      Most Blacks Live in the South
      Table 2-5: Geographic Distribution of African Americans and General Population, 1998
      Largest Black Population Gains Occur in the South
      Table 2-6: Growth of African American and General Populations by Region, 1990 to 1998
      Some Northeast and Midwest States Also Experienced High Growth
      Table 2-7: States with Fast-Growing Black Populations
      Black Migration to the South Increases
      Florida Registers Exceptional Gains
      Table 2-8: African American Population Trends in Key Florida Counties, 1990-1997
      Blacks Living Outside the South Cluster in Metropolitan Areas
      Table 2-9a: Residence of African Americans, 1980-1998
      Table 2-9b: Residence of Whites, 1980-1998
      Black Population Declines in Central Cities
      African Americans Become More Suburban
      Table 2-10: African American Population Trends in Key Localities, 1990-1997
      Foreign-Born Blacks Cluster in the Northeast and in Florida
      Table 2-11: Region of Residence of Foreign-Born Blacks

      Age and Gender
      African Americans Are Relatively Young
      Table 2-12: Median Age of African Americans and Other Population Groups, 1999 and 2010
      Younger Ages Predominate
      Table 2-13: Population by Age Group: Blacks vs. Whites

      Family Status
      Female Heads of Household Are Significant
      Table 2-14: Household by Type: African Americans vs. Other Households
      African American Households Are Larger Than White Households
      Table 2-15: Size of Household: African American vs. Non-Hispanic White
      Marital Status Varies
      Table 2-16: Marital Status: African Americans vs. Non-Hispanic Whites 18 Years Old and Over
      Traditional African American Families Number Nearly 3 Million
      Two-Parent Families Become More Common
      Table 2-17: Living Arrangements of Black Children Under 18 Years Old, 1990-1998
      Number of Interracial Marriages Increases
      Table 2-18: Interracial Married Couples with Black Partners, 1960-1998

      Economic Status
      Household Income Gains
      Table 2-19: Average Household Income: African Americans vs. Other Population Groups, 1988-1997
      Per Capita Income Grows More Than Other Groups
      Table 2-20: Per Capita Income: African Americans vs. Other Population Groups, 1988-1997
      Income Still Trails in Absolute Terms
      Table 2-21: Median Family Income: African Americans vs. Other Groups
      Blacks Feel Better Off Financially and Are More Optimistic
      Affluent African Americans Become Significant Economic Force
      Table 2-22: Family Income: African Americans vs. Other Families, 1997
      African American Females Match Earnings of White Females
      Table 2-23: Total Money Income of People 15 Years Old and Over: African Americans vs. Non-Hispanic Whites
      More African American Households Have One Income Earner
      Table 2-24: Number of Earners in a Household: African Americans vs.
      Other Population Groups
      Middle-Class African American Workers Fare Better
      Table 2-25: Total Money Income of Year Round, Full-Time Workers:
      African Americans vs. Non-Hispanic Whites
      Education Improves Earning Power
      Table 2-26: Median Income by Educational Attainment: African Americans vs. Non-Hispanic Whites
      African American Homeownership Hits Record High
      Credit Problems Inhibit Homeownership
      Table 2-27: Credit Records: African Americans vs. Other Population Groups
      Number of African Americans in Poverty Declines
      Table 2-28: Poverty Rates of African Americans and Other Population Groups
      But Welfare Reform Takes a Toll
      Traditional Families Fare Better
      Table 2-29: Poverty Status of African American vs. Other Families

      Employment
      African American Males Improve Employment Status
      Table 2-30: Occupation: African American Males vs. Other Males
      African American Males More Likely to Work in Public Sector
      Table 2-31: Class of Worker: African Americans vs. Other Population Groups
      Employment Status of African American Females Is More Favorable
      Table 2-32: Occupation: African American Females vs. Other Females
      African American Unemployment Rate Declines
      Table 2-33: Unemployment Rates Among African Americans, June 1998 vs. June 1999
      Younger Black Men Gain From Booming Economy
      Families Benefit From Low Unemployment
      Table 2-34: Families With Unemployed Members, 1997-1998

      Educational Attainment
      Education Gap Narrows Table 2-35: Educational Attainment: Blacks vs. Non-Hispanic Whites, 25 to 34 Years Old
      Experts See Gender Gap in African American Education
      Education Has Greatest Effect Upon Earning Power of African American Women
      Table 2-36: Median Weekly Earnings Premium for Educational Attainment, 1998: African American Women vs. Other Population Groups
      African American Males Receive Same Education Premium from
      Advanced Degrees as White Males
      Southern Blacks Still Face Barriers

      Health Status
      Studies Reveal "Separate and Unequal" Health-Care Systems
      African Americans Have High Incidence of Certain Medical Conditions
      Health Insurance Coverage Is Elusive
      High Rate of Church Attendance Enhances Health Status

      Politics and Religion
      Partisan Affiliation Is Declining
      African Americans Still Vote for Democratic Candidates
      African American Political Clout Varied in 1998
      African American Candidates Gain
      Afro-Caribbean Voters Gain in Political Importance
      African Americans Have Conservative Social Values and Diverse Political Views
      African American Churches Have a Long History
      African Americans Are Highly Religious
      African Americans Spend the Most Time in Church
      Churches Continue to Play a Key Role in the African American Community
      Black Churches Play a Key Political Role
      Black Churches Face Financial Difficulties

      Social and Cultural Attributes
      African Americans Have Distinct Social Values
      African Americans Differ in Their Use of Time
      Black Upper Class Engenders Complex Reactions
      Social Institutions of Upper-Middle-Class African Americans Thrive
      African American Youth Value Leadership and Intelligence

  3. The Market
    Figure 3-1: Projected African American Market Growth, 1999-2004

      Market Size and Growth
      Aggregate African American Income Exceeds $464 Billion
      African Americans Have Significant Buying Power
      Buying Power Estimates Differ
      Affluent African Americans Are Key Market
      Table 3-1: Aggregate Income of African Americans 15 Years Old and Over
      More Than 1 Million African American Males Earn at Least $40,000 Annually
      Table 3-2: Aggregate Income of African American Males 15 Years Old and Over
      African American Females Represent a Significant Market
      Table 3-3: Aggregate Income of African American Females 15 Years Old and Over
      Packaged Facts Estimates Distribution of African American Household Income
      Table 3-4: Aggregate Income of African American Households
      The Most Affluent African American Households Have $110 Billion Annual Income
      More Than 4 Million African American Households Have Incomes of $35,000 or More
      African American College Graduates Have Strong Economic Profile
      Table 3-5: Aggregate Income of African Americans with Bachelor's Degree or More
      Inner-City African Americans Offer Significant Opportunity for Retailers
      African Americans Represent Multi-Billion-Dollar Consumer Market
      Table 3-6: Estimated Annual Expenditures of African Americans: by Selected Product Category

      Factors Affecting Market Growth
      The African American Market Is Concentrated
      The Market Will Consolidate Further
      Table 3-7: Projected African American Population in Selected States, 2000-2015
      The South Remains Important
      Fast-Growing African American Markets Are Diverse
      Suburbs and Rural Areas Show Strongest Growth
      Table 3-8: African American Population Trends by Location of Residence, 1995-1997
      Affluent African American Households Are Found in Suburbs of Large Metropolitan Areas
      Table 3-9: Median Income of African American Households by Location of Residence
      Incomes of African Americans Outside Metropolitan Areas Show the Fastest Growth
      Table 3-10: Changes in Median Income of African American Households by Location of Residence, 1995-1997
      Retail Market Strong in Inner City
      Inner City Is "Last Frontier" of Retailing
      Multiracial Population Growth May Affect Traditional Racial Boundaries

      Projected Market Growth
      African American Market Will Show Significant Growth
      Table 3-11: Projected Growth of Aggregate Income of African Americans, 1999-2004

  4. African Americans as Consumers

      Shopping Patterns
      African Americans Enjoy Shopping
      African Americans Are Consumers
      Inner-City Residents Are Fashion Conscious
      Table 4-1: Spending Habits: Inner-City Residents vs. All Adults
      Atmosphere in Retailing Environment Is Critical
      African Americans Favor Companies Involved in Their Community
      Supermarkets Advised to Make an Effort to Understand Motivations of African American Consumers
      African Americans Favor Mass Merchandisers Over Drug Stores
      African Americans Spend More at Grocery Stores
      African Americans Place a High Priority on Fashion
      Brand Names Are Critical
      African Americans Boost Christian-Theme Barber and Beauty Shops

      Spending on Consumer Products
      African American Expenditure Patterns Are Distinct
      Table 4-2: Average Annual Expenditures: African Americans vs. Other Population Groups
      African Americans Spend Less for Food Away From Home
      Table 4-3a: Average Annual Expenditures for Food at Home and Away From Home: African Americans vs. Other Population Groups
      Table 4-3b: Average Annual Expenditures for Food at Home and Away
      From Home: African Americans vs. Other Population Groups
      Upscale Soul-Food Restaurants Flourish
      African Americans Are Important Fast-Food Customers
      At-Home Diet Differs for African Americans
      Table 4-4: Average Annual Expenditures on Food at Home: African Americans vs. Other Population Groups
      Cereals Are Consumed More Heavily
      African Americans Favor Meat, Poultry, and Seafood
      Processed Fruits and Vegetables Are Purchased Often
      Figure 4-1: Average Annual Expenditures for Meat: African Americans vs. All Consumer Units
      Alcoholic Beverage Consumption Varies
      African Americans Buy More Apparel
      Pantyhose Sell Well
      Table 4-5: Average Annual Expenditures on Apparel and Services: African Americans vs. Other Population Groups
      Shoes Are Popular Consumer Choice
      Figure 4-2: Annual Expenditures for Footwear: African Americans vs.
      Other Population Groups
      Expenditures for Personal-Care Products Are Substantially Above Average
      Table 4-6: Average Annual Expenditures for Personal-Care Products and Services: African Americans vs. Other Population Groups
      Ethnic Hair-Care Products Are Top Sellers
      Children's and Men's Hair-Care Products Are Growing Fast
      African Americans Are Major Consumers of Other Health and Beauty Aids
      Black Women More Likely to Buy Fragrances
      Furniture and Home Appliances Are Priority Purchases
      Table 4-7: Average Annual Expenditures on Household Supplies and Equipment: African Americans vs. Other Population Groups
      African Americans Buy Significant Quantities of Laundry and Cleaning Supplies
      Health-Care Expenditures Are Relatively Low
      Table 4-8: Average Annual Expenditures for Health Care: African Americans vs. Other Population Groups
      African Americans Are Heavy Users of Telephone Services
      Black Consumers Expect Quality Service From Telecommunications Providers
      PC Ownership in Black Households Increases at Rapid Rate
      Figure 4-3: Average Annual Expenditures for Telephone Services:
      African Americans vs. Other Population Groups
      Figure 4-4: Percentage of African American Households with Computers: 1984-1998 (selected years)
      Table 4-9: Percentage of U.S. Households With a Computer: By Race and Place of Residence
      Income Differences Do Not Explain Disparities in PC Ownership
      Table 4-10: Percentage of U.S. Households With a Computer: By Race and Income
      Affluent African Americans Close Home PC Ownership Gap
      African Americans Buy More Used Cars
      Figure 4-5: Upper-Income Households with a Computer: African Americans vs. Other Households
      Table 4-11: Average Annual Expenditures on Transportation: African Americans vs. Other Population Groups
      African Americans Buy Consumer Electronics Items
      Table 4-12: Average Annual Expenditures for Entertainment: African Americans vs. Other Population Groups
      Pet Supplies Not Big Seller
      African American Airline Customers Have Same Profile as Whites
      African Americans Buy More Life Insurance Than Other Groups
      Table 4-13: Average Annual Expenditures for Personal Insurance and Pensions: African Americans vs. Other Population Groups
      Affluent African Americans Favor Conservative Investment Vehicles
      Interest in Wall Street Rises
      Young, Upper-Income Blacks Save More Than Their Elders

  5. African American Media

      Television
      Blacks Spend the Most Time Watching TV
      Prime-Time TV Viewing Habits Differ
      Daytime Viewing Is Less Segmented by Race
      Broadcast Networks Reduce Programming with African American Casting and Themes
      Networks React to Criticism
      Broadcast Networks Face Challenge
      UPN Tries to Rebuild Black Audience
      Basketball Is Favorite Professional Sport on TV
      African American Viewers Favor Cable
      Cable Is Cost-Effective, Convenient Choice for African American Families
      Cable Outlets Respond More Effectively to African American Viewing Interests
      Nickelodeon Succeeds With Diversity-Based Programming
      Syndicated Shows Become Important to Advertisers
      TV Advertisers Take Into Account Concentration of African American Media Markets
      Cable Gains Support From Advertisers
      Network Advertising Can Still Be Effective
      BET Continues to Dominate
      Competitors Appear on the Horizon

      Radio
      Radio Listening Is High
      Minority-Formatted Stations Have Lower Revenues
      New Study Aims to Respond to FCC Findings
      Advertisers Place a High Priority on Radio
      African American Teens Reached on Radio
      Clear Channel Communications Succeeds With New Strategy in Memphis
      Gospel Music Stations Show Strong Demographics
      XM Satellite Radio Creates New African American Service
      Merck & Co. Uses Radio to Reach African Americans

      Print
      Black Newspapers Play Key Role in Community
      Mainstreaming of African American Media Coverage Affects the
      Traditional Black Press
      African American Newspapers Remain a Vibrant Economic Force
      African American Media Show Substantial Growth
      Five African American Magazines Are in Top 250
      Top Magazines Seek to Diversify Media Presence
      African Americans Depend on Print Media
      Black Magazines Are Highly Trusted
      Publishers See Lack of Advertising Support for Black Publications
      Black Publishers Group Highlights Five Myths Inhibiting Advertising in Black Media
      African Americans Depend on Newspapers for Coupons
      Publishers Launch Upscale Lifestyle Magazines for Affluent African American Males and Females
      African American Magazines Succeed as Newspaper Inserts
      New Magazines Target African American Families
      NV Magazine Seeks New Generation of African American Entrepreneurs

      New Media
      Government Study Shows Wide Variations in Internet Usage
      Fewer African Americans Use the Internet at Home
      Table 5-1: Percentage of U.S. Persons Using the Internet by Race/Hispanic Origin and Location of Use
      Demographic Variables Affect African American Internet Usage
      Affluent African American Households Are Heavy Users of the Internet
      Table 5-2: Percentage of U.S. Households Using the Internet: By Race and Income
      Schools and Public Libraries Are Important Internet Access Points for African Americans
      Table 5-3: Percentage of U.S. Households Using the Internet Outside the Home: By Selected Places and by Race and Hispanic Origin
      Internet Is Used More for Education and Less for E-Mail
      Table 5-4: Percentage of U.S. Persons Using the Internet at Home: By Type of Use and by Race and Hispanic Origin
      African Americans Use E-Mail for the Same Purposes as Other Population Groups
      Table 5-5: Percentage of U.S. Persons Using E-Mail at Home: By Subject Matter and by Race and Hispanic Origin
      Cost and Lack of Interest Affect Internet Use
      Table 5-6: Reasons for Households with a Computer/Web TV Not Using the Internet at Home: By Race and Hispanic Origin
      African Americans Show Less Concern About Internet Confidentiality
      Private Market Researchers Predict Higher Internet Access by African Americans
      Internet Pioneer Faces Competition
      Figure 5-1: Percentage of U.S. Households "Very Concerned" or "Somewhat Concerned" About Internet Confidentiality: African Americans vs. Non-Hispanic Whites
      Black Entertainment Television Launches Internet Venture
      BlackFamilies.com Offers Web Site for African Americans
      NetNoir Online Has Broad Definition of African American Culture and Market
      Johnson Publishing Reviews Internet Options
      The Christmas Channel Targets Middle-Income Minorities
      CyberSoul City Highlights HBO Offerings to African Americans

      Direct Marketing
      Street-Level Merchandising Is Critical in Urban Areas
      Black Literary Club Succeeds With Direct Mail
      Direct-Mail Pieces Need to Meet Expectations of African Americans
      Catalog Firm Expands Efforts to Reach African American Women

  6. Marketing to African Americans

      Marketing Fundamentals
      African Americans Are Not a Monolithic Market
      Targeted Marketing Differs From Diversity Marketing
      Mainstream Marketing Often Misses African American Consumer
      African American Market Research Requires Distinct Methodologies
      Ethnic Marketers Face Many Issues
      Success Requires a Company-Wide Commitment
      Black Culture Leveraged in Mainstream Marketing
      "Urban Style" Leaves the City and Enters the General Market
      African Americans Are "Influencers"
      More African American Models Used in Mainstream Advertising
      Models with Distinctive Features Become Popular
      Study Suggests Targeted Ads Work Best
      Strength of Ethnic Identification Affects Receptivity to Advertisements
      Advertisers Use African American Holidays
      Ongoing Promotion Is Vital
      Mainstream Firms Tap Into African American Market by Acquiring Black-Owned Businesses
      Opinions Differ on Marketing to Luxury Buyers

      Organizational Approaches
      Southwest Airlines Creates Organizational Focus for Multicultural
      Marketing
      Top Ad Agencies Consolidate Multicultural Marketing
      Advertisers Still Use Specialized Ad Shops
      Procter & Gamble Moves to Close Gap in African American Market

      Promotional Strategies
      Street Marketing and Peer Influence Appeal to Young, Urban Consumers
      Major Retailers Begin to Focus on Urban Market
      Success Strategies for Urban Retailing
      Ethnic Food Displays Work in Supermarkets
      Financial Services Industry Finds That Hard Sell Approach Does Not Work
      Ariel Capital Management Follows "Slow and Steady" Marketing Strategy
      Merrill Lynch Develops Marketing Approach to Affluent African Americans
      MONY Implements a Comprehensive Marketing Program Among African Americans
      Nationwide Insurance Expands Network of Urban Offices
      Allstate Invests in Inner-City Relationships
      Large Financial Services Institutions Take Notice of African American Business Borrowing Potential
      Health-Care Organizations Advised to Use Grassroots Marketing
      Kraft Foods Uses Relationship Marketing
      Coors Continues Building Relationships
      Displays Important in Boosting Ethnic Product Sales
      Ethnic Products No Longer Segregated
      Rite Aid Expands African American Promotions
      Pfizer USA Teams with Morehouse School of Medicine in Health Education Program
      Sprite Gains With Hip-Hop Campaign
      Church's Chicken Gains Market Share With Minority-Owned Franchises
      Japanese Auto Companies Seek to Add Minority-Owned Dealerships
      Major League Baseball Courts Inner-City Youths
      Tourism Promotion Groups Reach Out to African Americans

      Adapting Products to Meet African American Preferences
      Ameritech Introduces Telephone Directory for African Americans
      "Shark Bars" Target Affluent African Americans
      Supermarkets Feature African American Foods
      Ashley Stewart Recognizes Potential of Intimate Apparel Market
      Kellogg Makes Initial Foray Into Urban Marketing
      Transportation Industry Packages Products for African American
      Travelers
      American Greetings Launches Soul Kidz
      Fragrance Makers Offer General-Market Products to African Americans
      Opinions Vary in Cosmetics Industry on How to Meet Preferences of African American Women
      Cosmetics Marketers Introduce African American Products As Part of Broader Ethnic Lines
      Clairol Launches New Hair-Care Products for African American Women
      Acquisitions Bring Mainstream Companies into Ethnic Market

      Advertising Expenditures
      Ethnic Advertising Less Than Expected
      Multicultural Marketers Predict Sharp Increase in Ad Budgets
      Honda Divides Budget Equally Between Event Marketing and Measured Media
      Automotive Companies Boost African American Advertising
      General Motors Boosts Advertising on BET Holdings Media

  7. Examples of Advertising Targeted to African Americans

      Overview of Advertising Themes
      Images of Achievement
      Exceptional Women
      African American Moms
      Young Families
      Urban Scenes
      The African American Heritage

      Food and Soft Drinks
      Burger King's "Backyard Barbecue" Connects With Its Customers
      Cheerios Focuses on a Close-Knit African American Family
      Coca-Cola Commercial Portrays Wholesome Image
      Gatorade Uses Baseball Theme in Commercial

      Automobiles
      Honda Helps Achieve Balance in Life
      Oldsmobile Intrigue Surprises

      Financial Services
      Financial Services Firms Highlight Hard Work and Dreams of Affluent
      African Americans
      Ameritrade Leverages Negative Images of Securities Brokers

      Retailers
      Mervyn's Back-to-School Commercial Reflects Diversity
      Sears Highlights "The Good Life"
      JCPenney Portrays Black Churchgoers in Print Ad
      Living.com Uses Female Athlete to Attract Customers

      Community Relations
      Texaco Reaches Out to the African American Community
      Nike Seeks to Build Socially Conscious Image

    Appendix I: Examples Of Consumer Advertising
    Appendix II: Addresses Of Selected African American Market Resources

      Advertising and Public Relations Agencies
      Market Research Companies/Marketing Consultants
      African American Publications
      Television Networks
      Internet
      Organizations

Abstract:

This completely revised Packaged Facts report analyzes the African American market, still the largest minority population segment in the United States. The report offers a thorough demographic analysis of the African American population based upon the most recent available data on income, occupation, education and other important economic and social variables. It also offers an assessment of the current size and projected growth of the African American market through 2004, and reviews shopping behavior and consumption trends. In-depth case studies of marketing strategies and advertising campaigns are also provided.

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