The Gay and Lesbian Market in the U.S.

Feb 1, 2007
228 Pages - Pub ID: LA1259124
Attention: There is an updated edition available for this report.
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Chapter 1 Executive Summary
  • Introduction
    • Background
    • Overview of Report

  • Scope and Methodology
    • Scope of the Market
    • Overview of Data Sources

  • Demographic Profile
    • Gay and Lesbian Population Tops 15 Million
    • Gay Population Generally Younger than Average but Median Age Likely Increasing
    • New Census Data Show Exceptionally Rapid Growth in Reported Number of Gay & Lesbian Households
    • Gay Families Increasingly Important

  • Where Gay Men and Lesbians Live
    • California and Florida Have Largest Number of Gays
    • New York Metro Area Has Largest Gay and Lesbian Population
    • San Francisco Metro Area Has Highest Percentage of Gays
    • Gay and Lesbian Population Most Significant in Core Cities
    • Gay Males Still More Likely to Live in Core Cities
    • Gay Men Becoming More Prominent in Suburban Areas
    • Gay Families Avoid Big Cities

  • Social and Political Trends Affecting the Gay and Lesbian Market
    • Surveys Continue to Reflect Long-Term Trend toward Increased Acceptance
    • Most Americans Have Gay Acquaintances
    • Heterosexual Employees Show Increasing Support for Diversity Measures
    • Strong Majority of Heterosexual Workers Comfortable with Gay Co-Workers
    • Most Gay Men and Lesbians Are Out
    • Gay Men and Lesbians More Open with Bosses than Co-workers
    • Comfort Level of Gay Employees on the Rise
    • Gay Employees Continue to Experience Job Discrimination

  • Overview of Gay and Lesbian Consumer Behavior
    • Gays Are Trendsetters
    • Affluent Gay Auto Buyers Aspire to Luxury Brands
    • Gay Consumers More Likely to Frequent Trendy Retailers
    • Gays Depend on the Internet for Consumer Information

  • Industry Highlights
    • Gay Consumers Financially Self-Confident
    • Retirement and Debts Most Pressing Financial Concerns of Gay Consumers
    • Spending and Saving Priorities Differ
    • Personal Health Concerns Different
    • Overeating Major Cause of Lack of Fitness
    • Visits to Health-Care Providers More Frequent
    • Prescription Drug Use More Common
    • Gay Men More Likely to Travel Alone and Spend More on Their Trips
    • Referrals from Friends and Relatives Most Important Factor in Choosing
    • Travel Destination
    • Gay-Friendliness Top Criterion for Travel Destinations

  • The Digital Revolution and the Gay and Lesbian Market
    • Gays Download Entertainment More Often
    • Gays Spend More for Downloading Entertainment
    • Gays Watch More Movies on PCs and iPods
    • Movies More Important Form of Home Entertainment for Gays
    • Gays More Involved with Blogs
    • Gay Men Turn to YouTube
    • Gay and Lesbian Consumers Replace Cell Phone Handsets More Often

  • Gays and the Media
    • Gay Press Remains Important
    • Most Gays Consume Mainstream Media
    • Gay Press Has Combined Circulation of 3.4 Million
    • National Newspapers Favored
    • Cable Networks More Popular among Gay and Lesbian Viewers
    • TV Outlets Expand
    • Satellite Radio Gains Favor
    • Gay Consumers Heavy Users of New Media

  • Advertising and Marketing Trends
    • Advertising Expenditures in Local Gay Press Outpaced General Market over Past Decade
    • National Brands More Prominent
    • Gay-Specific Ads Increase in Importance
    • Shift in Gay and Lesbian Advertising Strategies May Be Underway
    • Gay-Specific Ads with Mainstream Appeal Are More Effective
    • Progressive Corporate Policies Most Important Factor in Attracting Gay and Lesbian Consumers
    • Gay Marketing Campaigns Also Critical
    • Targeted Marketing Campaigns Have Strong Favorable Impact on Gay and Lesbian Consumers but Draw Little Reaction from Heterosexual Consumers
    • Only Minority of Heterosexual Consumers Favor Boycotts of Companies Marketing to Gay and Lesbian Consumers
    • Event Sponsorship Continues as Key Strategy

  • Size and Growth of the Market
    • Buying Power Used to Measure Size of Market
    • Disposable Income Not the Same as Discretionary
    • Gay and Lesbian Buying Power Tops $660 Billion in 2006
    • Buying Power of Gays in Top 15 Metro Markets Totals $310 Billion

  • Trends and Opportunities
    • More Major Advertisers Target Gay and Lesbian Consumers
    • Marketers Start to Appeal to Gay Men and Lesbians through General-Market Media
    • Gays in the Vanguard of the Digital Revolution
    • Marketers and Retailers Can Successfully Target Gays Online
    • Gay and Lesbian Consumers Offer Strong Potential for Mass Merchandisers
    • Younger Gays Key Component of Youth Market
    • Gay and Lesbian Families Continue to Expand Horizons for Marketers
    • Aging Gay Boomers Offer Growing Opportunities
    • Wide Range of Industries Can Benefit from Focus on Gay and Lesbian Market

Section 1 The Gay and Lesbian Population Today
Chapter 2 Demographic Profile

  • Introduction
    • Defining the Scope of the Market
    • Overview of Data Sources

  • Key Characteristics of the Gay & Lesbian Population
    • Gay and Lesbian Population Tops 15 Million
    • Table 2-1: Projected Growth of Total U.S. and Gay and Lesbian Population
    • 18 Years Old and Over, 2006-2011
    • Gay Men Predominate
    • Table 2-2: Number of Same-Sex Households by Gender, 2005
    • Table 2-3: Projected Growth of Total U.S. and Gay and Lesbian Population
    • 18 Years Old and Over by Gender, 2006-2011
    • Gay Population Generally Younger than Average but Median Age Likely Increasing
    • Table 2-4: Age Segmentation of Gay and Lesbian Population
    • Race and Ethnicity Profile of Gay and Lesbian Population
    • Economic Status of Gay Population Provokes Discussion

  • Households and Families
    • New Census Data Show Exceptionally Rapid Growth in Reported Number of Gay & Lesbian Households
    • Figure 2-1: Percent of Increase in Number of Households, Same-Sex vs. Other Households, 2000-2005
    • Table 2-5: Growth in Number of Households, Same-Sex vs. Other Households, 2000-2005
    • Table 2-6: Growth in Number of Households, Same-Sex vs. Other Households, 2000-2005
    • Same-Sex Couples Now More Willing to Report Nature of Relationship
    • Census Bureau Undercounts Number of Gay and Lesbian Couples
    • Census Data Suggest Possibility of Changing Dynamic in Gender Ratio of
    • Gay and Lesbian Couples
    • Table 2-7: Growth in Number of Same-Sex Households by Gender, 2000-2005
    • Gay Families Increasingly Important
    • Table 2-8: Percent of Family and Non-Family Same-Sex Households, 2005
    • Table 2-9: Family and Non-Family Same-Sex Households by Gender, 2005

Chapter 3 Where Gay Men and Lesbians Live

  • Overview
    • Introduction
    • California and Florida Have Largest Number of Gays
    • Table 3-1: 20 States with Largest Gay and Lesbian Populations, 2005 Gay Men and Lesbians Overrepresented in Several States
    • Table 3-2: Ranking of Top 20 States by Relative Importance of Gay and Lesbian Population New York Metro Area Has Largest Gay and Lesbian Population
    • Table 3-3: Metropolitan Areas with Largest Gay and Lesbian Populations, 2005
    • San Francisco Metro Area Has Highest Percentage of Gays
    • Table 3-4: Metropolitan Areas with Largest Gay and Lesbian Populations, 2005
    • Gay and Lesbian Population Most Significant in Core Cities
    • Table 3-5: Gay and Lesbian Populations in Selected Cities as Percent of
    • Total Population18 Years Old and Over, 2005

  • Residential Patterns: Gay Men vs. Lesbians and Families vs. Non-Families
    • No Clear Pattern in Distribution of Family Households
    • Table 3-6: States Ranked by Percent Family Households among Same-Sex Households, 2005
    • Table 3-7: States Ranked by Percent of Male and Female Same-Sex Family Households, 2005 Wide Variations in Residential Patterns of Gay Men and Lesbians
    • Table 3-8: Ten States with Highest Proportion of Male and Female Same- Sex Households, 2005
    • Table 3-9: Percent Male Same-Sex Households in 20 States with Largest Number of Same-Sex Households, 2005 Gay Males Still More Likely to Live in Core Cities
    • Table 3-10: Percent of Same-Sex Households Living in Core Cities of Metropolitan Areas with Largest Gay and Lesbian Populations by Gender, 2005
    • Gay Men Becoming More Prominent in Suburban Areas
    • Table 3-11: Residential Patterns of Lesbian Couples in Chicago Metropolitan Area
    • Table 3-12: Residential Patterns of Lesbian Couples in New York Metropolitan Area
    • Table 3-13: Residential Patterns of Lesbian Couples in San Francisco Bay Metro Area by County
    • Table 3-14: Residential Patterns of Lesbian Couples in Washington, D.C. Metro Area by County and City
    • Gay Families Avoid Big Cities
    • Table 3-15: Percent of Same-Sex Households Living in Core Cities of Metropolitan Areas with Largest Gay and Lesbian Populations, Family vs. Non-Family Households
    • Table 3-16: Percent of Same-Sex Family Households Living in Principal
    • Cities of Metropolitan Areas with Largest Gay and Lesbian Populations by Gender, 2005

Chapter 4 Social and Political Trends Affecting the Gay and Lesbian Market

  • Changing Societal Attitudes
    • Surveys Continue to Reflect Long-Term Trend toward Increased Acceptance
    • Most Americans Have Gay Acquaintances
    • Table 4-1: Percent Knowing Someone Who is Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, or Transgender Most People Support Openness among Gay Acquaintances
    • Table 4-2: Attitudes toward Openness, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers Heterosexual Employees Show Increasing Support for Diversity Measures
    • Table 4-3: Importance of Benefits When Choosing Between Companies to Work For, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Table 4-4: Importance of Diversity Measures on Career Decision-Making, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Table 4-5: Heterosexuals Views on Importance of Diversity Measures on Career Decision- Making, 2006 vs. 2002 Strong Majority of Heterosexual Workers Comfortable with Gay Co-Workers
    • Table 4-6: Attitudes toward Sexual Orientation and the Workplace, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Same-Sex Marriage Remains Contentious Political and Social Issue

  • Attitudes of Gay Men and Lesbians
    • Most Gay Men and Lesbians Are Out
    • Table 4-7: Percent of Gay Men and Lesbians Considering Themselves Out
    • Hate Crimes Still Major Obstacle to Openness
    • Table 4-8: Reasons for Not Coming Out
    • Gay Men and Lesbians More Open with Bosses than Co-workers
    • Table 4-9: Openness of Gay Men and Lesbians about Their Sexual Orientation
    • Comfort Level of Gay Employees on the Rise
    • Table 4-10: Comfort in Current or Most Recent Job, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Employees
    • Table 4-11 Comfort Level of Gay and Lesbian Employees in Sharing Personal Information at Work, 2006 vs. 2002 Gay Employees Remain Object of Offensive Humor in the Workplace
    • Table 4-12: Perceptions of Offensive Humor in the Workplace, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Employees Gay Employees Continue to Experience Job Discrimination
    • Table 4-13: Perceptions of Gay and Lesbian Employees about Discrimination in the Workplace
    • Table 4-14: Types of Workplace Discrimination Faced by Gay Men and Lesbians Due to Sexual Orientation

Section 2 Understanding the Gay and Lesbian Consumer
Chapter 5 Overview of Gay and Lesbian Consumer Behavior

  • Key Consumer Attitudes
    • Gays Are Trendsetters
    • Table 5-1: Attitudes toward Trendsetting, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Brand-Name Alcoholic Beverages Favored
    • Table 5-2: Percent Ordering Alcoholic Beverages by Brand Name, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Affluent Gay Auto Buyers Aspire to Luxury Brands

  • Shopping Behavior
    • Gay Consumers More Likely to Frequent Trendy Retailers
    • Table 5-3: Reasons for Choosing Retail Outlets, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Wal-Mart as Popular with Gays as with Other Consumers
    • Table 5-4: 15 Most Popular Retail Outlets, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Table 5-5: Retail Outlets Preferred for Purchases of Consumer Electronics, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers

  • Online Consumer Behavior
    • Gays Depend on the Internet for Consumer Information
    • Table 5-6: Use of the Internet for Consumer Information, Gay and Lesbian
    • vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Gay and Lesbian Consumers Prefer to Pay Bills Online
    • Table 5-7: Method of Payment for Wireless Cell Phone Bill, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers

Chapter 6 Industry Highlights

  • Financial Services
    • Gay Consumers Financially Self-Confident
    • Table 6-1: Attitudes toward Aspects of Managing Finances, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Retirement and Debts Most Pressing Financial Concerns of Gay Consumers
    • Table 6-2: Leading Financial Concerns of Gay and Lesbian Consumers
    • Table 6-3: Leading Financial Concerns of Heterosexual Consumers
    • Internet Primary Source of Financial Information for Gays and Lesbians
    • Table 6-4: Sources Used for Financial Information, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Bundled Financial Services Preferred
    • Table 6-5: Attitudes toward Bundled Financial Services, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Spending and Saving Priorities Differ
    • Table 6-6: Spending and Saving Priorities, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Recommendations from Family and Friends Important Consideration in
    • Choice of Auto Insurance Companies
    • Table 6-7: Reasons for Choosing Current Auto Insurance Company, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers by Gender
    • Lesbian Consumers More Likely to Switch Auto Insurance Companies
    • Table 6-8: Length of Time with Current Auto Insurance Company, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers by Gender
    • Table 6-9: Percent Switching to New Auto Insurance Company within Past
    • 3 Years, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers by Gender
    • Reasons for Switching to New Auto Insurance Company Vary Widely Table 6-10: Reasons for Switching to New Auto Insurance Company, Gay
    • and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers by Gender
    • Gay Men Most Interested in Price of Auto Insurance
    • Table 6-11: Importance of Price When Purchasing Auto Insurance, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers by Gender
    • Gays and Lesbians More Likely to Be New Customers of Homeowners Insurance Company
    • Table 6-12: Length of Time with Current Homeowners or Renters Insurance Company, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers by Gender
    • Table 6-13: Reasons for Choosing Current Homeowners or Renters
    • Insurance Company, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • by Gender

  • Health and Wellness
    • HIV/AIDS Leading Public Health Priority for Gay Men and Lesbians
    • Table 6-14: Leading Health Care Priorities, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Personal Health Concerns Differ
    • Table 6-15: Leading Personal Health Concerns, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Gay-Friendly Physicians Highly Important
    • Table 6-16: Criteria Used When Choosing a Doctor or Other Health-Care Professional, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Cigarette Smoking More Common
    • Table 6-17: Percent Cigarette Smokers, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Table 6-18 Likelihood of Trying to Quit Smoking in Next 12 Months, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Table 6-19: Percent Using Smoking Cessation Products, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Lesbians Perceive Body Weight More Accurately
    • Table 6-20: Body Mass Index (BMI), Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Table 6-21: Perception of Body Weight, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Table 6-22: Level of Fitness, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Table 6-23: Health and Fitness Activities, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Overeating Major Cause of Lack of Fitness
    • Table 6-24: Factors Contributing Most to Lack of Fitness, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Gays More Likely to Look to Cosmetic Surgery
    • Table 6-25: Cosmetic Surgery, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Visits to Health-Care Providers More Frequent
    • Table 6-26: Frequency of Visiting Health-Care Providers, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Table 6-27: Percent Accompanying a Family Member to a Health-Care Provider, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Prescription Drug Use More Common
    • Table 6-28: Use of Prescription Drugs, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Gay-Themed Ads Affect Choice of Prescription Drugs
    • Table 6-29: Factors Affecting Use of Health Products or Services by Gay and Lesbian Consumers Gays Heavy Users of Internet for Health Information
    • Table 6-30: Frequency of Searching for Health Information on the Internet,
    • Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Table 6-31: Degree of Satisfaction with Health Information Found on the Internet, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Gays More Interested in Using the Internet to Get Personalized Medical Advice
    • Table 6-32: Degree of Interest in Obtaining Personalized Health Information on the Internet, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Table 6-33: Degree of Interest in Storing Personalized Health Information on the Internet, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Table 6-34: Degree of Interest in Sharing Personalized Online Health Information with Others, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Table 6-35: Degree of Interest in Storing Personal Health Information of
    • Family Members on the Internet, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Gay Men and Lesbian More Willing to Share Personal Medical Information with Researchers
    • Table 6-36: Degree of Interest in Sharing Personal Health Information with Medical Researchers, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers

  • Travel
    • Gay Men More Likely to Travel Alone
    • Gay Men Spend More on Their Trips
    • Table 6-37: Mean Personal Spending When Traveling Alone
    • Referrals from Friends and Relatives Most Important Factor in Choosing
    • Travel Destination
    • Table 6-38: Influences on Decision about Where to Visit, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Table 6-39: Sources of Information about Travel Destinations Used by Gay and Lesbian Consumers
    • Table 6-40: Sources of Travel-Related Information Used by Gay and Lesbian Consumers
    • Gay-Friendliness Top Criterion for Travel Destinations
    • Table 6-41: Importance of a Destination Being Gay-Friendly
    • Table 6-42: Most Important Criteria for a Destination to be Gay-Friendly among Gay Men
    • Table 6-43: Most Important Criteria for a Destination to be Gay-Friendly among Lesbians
    • Gay Travelers Depend on Multiple Ways to Judge Gay-Friendliness of Travel Destinations
    • Table 6-44: Trusted Sources of Endorsement for Gay-Friendly Travel Destinations or Providers
    • Fair Treatment Major Factor in Choice of Hotels
    • Table 6-45: More Important Considerations When Deciding at Which Hotel to Stay for Business, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Table 6-46: More Important Considerations When Deciding at Which Hotel to Stay for Pleasure, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Gay Travelers Much More Likely to Make Online Hotel Reservations
    • Table 6-47: Method Used to Make Travel Reservations for Personal Travel, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Table 6-48: Websites Used in Making Hotel Reservations, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Gays More Likely to Choose Overseas Travel
    • Table 6-49: Plans for Next Vacation, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Gays Remain Untapped Market for Cruise Lines
    • Table 6-50: Cruise Vacations, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers

Chapter 7 The Digital Revolution and the Gay and Lesbian Market

  • Digital Media and Entertainment
    • Gays Download Music More Often
    • Table 7-1: Frequency of Downloading Music, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Downloading Movies and TV Shows More Popular among Gays
    • Table 7-2: Frequency of Downloading Movies, TV Shows, Podcasts, or Audiobooks, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Gays Spend More for Downloading Entertainment
    • Table 7-3: Amount Spent in Last Month for Downloading Entertainment,
    • Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Gays Watch More Movies on PCs and iPods
    • Table 7-4: Percent Watching Movies on PCs and iPods, Gay and Lesbian
    • vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Movies on DVD More Important Form of Home Entertainment for Gays
    • Table 7-5: Percent Watching Movies by Type of Media and Venue, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Gay Viewers More Interested in HDTV
    • Table 7-6: Ownership and Use of HDTV, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers

  • Social Networking on the Internet
    • Gays More Involved with Blogs
    • Table 7-7: Readership of Blogs, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual
    • Consumers
    • Gays More Likely to Visit Favorite Blogs Daily
    • Table 7-8: Frequency of Visiting Favorite Blogs, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Gay Men Turn to YouTube
    • Table 7-9: Percent Visiting Leading Blogs for Any Period of Time per Week, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Gay Consumers More Positive toward Ads on Blogs
    • Table 7-10: Attitudes toward Advertising on Blogs, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers

  • Cell Phone Ownership and Use
    • Cell Phones More Common
    • Table 7-11: Use of Telecommunications Services, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Advertising Has Little Impact on Choice of Wireless Service Provider
    • Table 7-12: Influence of Advertising When Shopping for a Wireless Service Provider, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Table 7-13: Sources Used to Help Select Current Wireless Service Provider, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Gay and Lesbian Consumers Replace Handsets More Often
    • Table 7-14: Ownership of Handsets, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Gay and Lesbian Consumers More Interested in Upgrading Handset Features
    • Table 7-15: Features Desired on Next Mobile Phone, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Gay and Lesbian Consumers More Aware of Internet Telephony
    • Table 7-16: Awareness of Internet Telephony, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Wireless Data Applications Get Attention from Gay Consumers
    • Table 7-17: Use of Wireless Data Applications, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers

Section 3 Marketing to Gay Consumers
Chapter 8 Gays and the Media

  • Overview
    • Gay Press Remains Important
    • Figure 8-1: Percent of Gay Men and Lesbians Reading Gay and Lesbian Publications
    • Most Gays Consume Mainstream Media
    • Table 8-1: Use of Gay Media by Gay and Lesbian Consumers

  • Print Media
    • Gay Press Has Combined Circulation of 3.4 Million
    • National Newspapers Favored
    • Table 8-2: Newspaper Readership, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Magazine Preferences Show Significant Differences
    • Table 8-3: Magazine Readership, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers

  • Television and Radio
    • Cable Networks More Popular among Gay and Lesbian Viewers
    • Table 8-4: Television Viewing Habits, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • TV Outlets Expand
    • Satellite Radio Gains Favor
    • Table 8-5: Radio Listening Habits of Gay and Lesbian Consumers
    • Sirius OutQ Brings 24/7 Gay Radio Coast-To-Coast

  • New Media
    • Gay Consumers Heavy Users of New Media
    • Figure 8-2: Percent Accessing Mainstream Online Channels, Gay and
    • Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Figure 8-3: Percent Accessing Special-Interest Blogs, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • PlanetOut Expands with Acquisition of The Advocate and Out
    • The Advocate and Out Offer Readers Digital Delivery Option
    • Gay Networks Expand with Online Presence

Chapter 9 Advertising and Marketing Trends

  • Advertising Trends
    • Advertising Expenditures in Local Gay Press Outpaced General Market over Past Decade
    • National Brands More Prominent
    • Gay-Specific Ads Increase in Importance
    • National Gay Magazines Experience Jump in Readership and Slowdown in
    • Ad Spending in 2006
    • Shift in Gay and Lesbian Advertising Strategies May Be Underway

  • Receptivity of Gay Consumers to Advertising
    • Gay and Lesbian Viewers More Engaged in TV Commercials
    • Figure 9-1: Attitudes toward Entertainment and Information Value of TV Commercials, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Table 9-1: Attitudes toward Television Commercials, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Magazine Ads Seen as Entertaining and Informative
    • Table 9-2: Attitudes toward Magazine Advertisements, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Gay Consumers less Positive toward Web Ads
    • Table 9-3: Attitudes toward Website Advertisements, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Gay-Specific Ads with Mainstream Appeal Are More Effective
    • Table 9-4: Impact of Advertising on Gay and Lesbian Consumers by Type
    • of Advertisement

  • Impact of Gay and Lesbian Marketing Campaigns
    • Progressive Corporate Policies Most Important Factor in Attracting Gay and Lesbian Consumers
    • Table 9-5: Impact of Gay and Lesbian Marketing Activities on Buying
    • Decisions of Gay and Lesbian Consumers
    • Table 9-6: Factors Influencing Larger or More Complicated Purchases of
    • Gay and Lesbian Consumers
    • Gay Marketing Campaigns Also Critical
    • Table 9-7: Impact of Corporate Policies and Reputation on Consumer
    • Behavior of Gay and Lesbian Consumers
    • Corporate Reputation Increasingly Important in Gay and Lesbian Purchasing Decisions
    • Table 9-8: Impact of Corporate Reputation on Purchasing Decisions, Gay
    • and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Fair Treatment of Gay Employees Important Factor in Shopping Decisions
    • of Gay Consumers
    • Table 9-9: Impact of Availability of Information on Corporate Policies on
    • Buying Decisions of Gay and Lesbian Consumers
    • Gay Media Main Source of Information about Companys Reputation for Gay-Friendliness
    • Table 9-10: Sources of Information for Gay and Lesbian Consumers about a Companys Reputation for Gay-Friendliness
    • Corporate Reputation Important across Most Industries
    • Table 9-11: Reasons for Choosing Primary Bank, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Table 9-12: Reasons for Choosing Airline Preferred the Most for Personal Travel, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Table 9-13: Reasons for Choosing the Car Driven Most Frequently, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Table 9-14: Reasons for Choosing the Hotel Chain Most Preferred for
    • Leisure Travel, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Number of Companies with Gay-Friendly Policies Increases Dramatically
    • Targeted Marketing Campaigns Have Strong Favorable Impact on Gay and Lesbian Consumers but Draw Little Reaction from Heterosexual Consumers
    • Table 9-15: Perceived Impact of Gay and Lesbian Marketing on Company Sales, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Only Minority of Heterosexual Consumers Favor Boycotts of Companies Marketing to Gay and Lesbian Consumers
    • Table 9-16: Percent Favoring Boycotts against Companies Marketing to Gay and Lesbians, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Gay and Lesbian Consumers More Likely to Participate in Boycotts
    • Table 9-17: Percent Boycotting a Company in the Past Year, Gay and
    • Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Employees
    • Table 9-18: Reasons for Boycotting Companies, Gay and Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Consumers
    • Boycotts of Companies Marketing to Gays Prove Ineffective

  • Marketing and Advertising Approaches
    • Event Sponsorship Continues as Key Strategy
    • Toyota Broadens Marketing to Gay Community
    • Ikea Returns to the Gay Market with Updated Ad
    • American Airlines Launches Web Page for GLBT Travelers

Section 4 Market Trends
Chapter 10 Size and Growth of the Market

  • The Buying Power of Gay Men and Lesbians
    • Buying Power Used to Measure Size of Market
    • Disposable Income Not the Same as Discretionary
    • Gay and Lesbian Buying Power Tops $660 Billion in 2006
    • Gay and Lesbian Buying Power Will Reach $690 Billion in 2007 and $835 Billion in 2011
    • Table 10-1: Projected Growth in Total Gay and Lesbian Buying Power, 2006-2011

  • Gay and Lesbian Buying Power in Major Metro Markets
    • Buying Power of Gays in Top 15 Metro Markets Totals $310 Billion
    • Table 10-2: Gay and Lesbian Buying Power in Metropolitan Areas with
    • Largest Gay and Lesbian Populations, 2005
    • Gays in San Francisco and Washington, D.C. Metro Areas Wield Most Significant Individual Buying Power
    • Table 10-3: Per Capita Gay and Lesbian Buying Power in Metropolitan Areas with Largest Gay and Lesbian Populations, 2005

Chapter 11 Trends and Opportunities

  • Strategic Trends
    • Newest Census Data Confirm Need for Marketers to Move beyond
    • Stereotypes
    • More Major Advertisers Target Gay and Lesbian Consumers
    • Increased Spending on Gay-Themed Ads Seen as Major Trend
    • Marketers Start to Appeal to Gay Men and Lesbians through General-Market Media

  • Marketing Opportunities
    • Gays in the Vanguard of the Digital Revolution
    • Marketers and Retailers Can Successfully Target Gays Online
    • Gay and Lesbian Consumers Offer Strong Potential for Mass
    • Merchandisers
    • Younger Gays Key Component of Youth Market
    • Gay and Lesbian Families Continue to Expand Horizons for Marketers
    • Figure 11-1: Percent Family and Non-Family Same-Sex Households by Gender
    • Table 11-1: Average Annual Expenditures on a Child by Two-Parent,
    • Middle-Income Families, 2005
    • Aging Gay Boomers Offer Growing Opportunities
    • Wide Range of Industries Can Benefit from Focus on Gay and Lesbian Market

Appendix I Definition of Terms
Appendix II Addresses of Selected Gay and Lesbian Market
Resources

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