The U.S. Lawn and Garden Market

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The $25 billion lawn and garden market has been growing at a healthy clip over the past two years. This comprehensive update of the best-selling Packaged Facts study highlights factors contributing to the blossoming of this market. The study provides in-depth analysis of the three primary L&G categories: outdoor equipment, supplies, and professional lawncare services. Featuring numerous sales tables and definitive marketer lists, and containing profiles of industry leaders, the report also examines marketer competition and consolidation, new product trends, retail reconfiguration, advertising/promotion, and consumer behavior and purchasing patterns. Individual sections are available.
  1. Executive Summary
    • Scope and Methodology
      • Market Parameters
      • Study Methodology
    • The Overall Market
      • Market Size and Growth
      • Factors in Future Growth
      • Projected Market Growth
      • Number of Marketers
      • Size of Marketers
      • Retail Channels: Equipment/Supplies
      • The Consumer: Number of Owners, Purchasers
    • Lawn and Garden Equipment
      • Equipment Category: Three Segments
      • Category Size and Growth
      • OPE the Largest Segment
      • OPE Unit Share by Product Type
      • Major OPE Marketers
      • Major Tools/Implements Marketers
      • Major Watering Equipment Marketers
      • Competition Centers on Product Development
      • OPE Product Trends
      • Consumer Advertising Expenditures
      • Primary Retail Outlets
      • Home Centers Pull Ahead of Discounters
      • The Consumer: Factors Favoring OPE Ownership
      • The Consumer: Factors Favoring Tools/Implements Ownership
    • Lawn and Garden Supplies
      • Two Product Segments: Fertilizers/Growth Media;
      • Pest Control Supplies
      • Category Size and Growth
      • Fertilizers/Growth Media Up; Pesticides Down
      • Scotts the Undisputed Leader in Supplies
      • Competition: Fertilizers
      • Competition: Growth Media
      • Competition: Pesticides
      • Consumer Advertising Expenditures
      • A Wide Range of Retail Outlets
      • Mass Retailers Lead in Share
      • The Consumer: Factors Favoring Purchasing of Supplies
    • Professional Lawncare Services
      • The Services: Defined
      • Category Size and Growth
      • Size and Types of Marketers
      • TruGreen-ChemLawn with Lion's Share
      • Consumer Advertising Expenditures
      • The Consumer

  2. The Overall Market
    • Introduction
      • Scope of Study
      • Areas Not Included
    • The Products
      • Three Categories: Equipment, Supplies, and Services
      • The Equipment Category: Three Segments
      • Outdoor Power Equipment (OPE)
      • Tools and Implements
      • Watering/Spraying Equipment
      • The Supplies Category: Two Segments
      • Fertilizers/Growth Media
      • Pest Control Products
      • The Services Category: Professional Lawncare Services
    • Government Regulation
      • The Federal Level
      • The EPA
      • The State Level
      • The Local Level
      • California (CARB) As Trendsetter
    • Market Size, Growth, and Composition
      • Estimating Market Size Is Notoriously Difficult
      • L&G Market Rises to $25 Billion in 1998
      • Table 2-1: Estimated Retail Sales of U.S. Lawn and Garden Market by Category, 1994-1998 (dollars): Equipment, Supplies, Lawncare Services, Total
      • A Strengthening Growth Pattern
      • Figure 2-1: U.S. Lawn and Garden Retail Sales, 1994-1998 (dollars)
      • Services Enjoy Greatest Gains
      • Equipment and Supplies Continue Moderate Growth
      • Category Share: Equipment Dominates
      • Figure 2-2: Share of U.S. Lawn and Garden Retail Sales by Category, 1998 (percent): Professional Lawncare Services, Supplies, Equipment
      • Retail Share: Home Centers Challenge Discounters for Lead
      • Table 2-2: Estimated Retail Share of U.S. Lawn and
      • Garden Sales by Outlet Type, 1998 (percent): 8 Types, Other
      • Seasonality: Most Sales in Spring and Early Summer
      • Regionality: Even Distribution by Population Patterns
    • Factors in Future Growth
      • Overview: Outlook Bright for Lawn and Garden
      • The Fundamental Positive: An Aging Population
      • The Aging Baby Boomers
      • Table 2-3: Percent Distribution of U.S. Population by
      • Age Bracket, 1995-2005 (percent): Under 5, 5-13, 14-17, 18-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-64, 65 and over
      • Expansion in Housing Starts a Huge Positive
      • Table 2-4: U.S. Housing Starts, 1991-1997 (thousands)
      • Table 2-5: U.S. Housing Starts by Month: 1997 vs. 1998 (thousands)
      • Record Number of Housing Sales in 1998
      • Homeowners Invested in Lawncare and Gardening
      • A Major Uncertainty: The Economy
      • An Even More Fundamental Uncertainty: The Weather
      • Regulations: Potentially Positive
      • Technological Innovation Stimulates Sales
      • Expanding Retail Presence a Positive Factor
      • Positive Cultural Trends: Integrating Ecology and Luxury
      • Consolidation in Services a Good Sign
      • Potential Trends: Water Gardening; "Lawnless Lawns"
      • On the Not-So-Distant Horizon: Bio-Engineering
    • Projected Market Growth
      • Sales to Reach Almost $32 Billion by 2003
      • Services to Drive Growth
      • Figure 2-3: Projected Retail Sales of U.S. Lawn and Garden Market, 1998-2003 (dollars)
      • Table 2-6: U.S. Lawn and Garden Market: Projected Retail Sales by Category, 1999-2003 (dollars)
    • The Marketers: Overview
      • Number of Marketers
      • Size of Marketers
      • Types of Marketers
      • Typological Overlaps
      • Most Marketers Are "Intensive Specialists"
      • The Rare Generalist
    • Major Lawn and Garden Marketers
      • "Major Marketers": Explanations and Qualifications
      • Majors: Outdoor Power Equipment
      • Majors: Tools and Implements
      • Majors: Watering/Spraying Equipment
      • Majors: Supplies
      • Majors: Services
      • Majors: Private-Label Marketers
      • Table 2-7: Selected List of Major U.S. Lawn and Garden Marketers, Top Brands, and Product Specialization (22 Marketers)
    • Distribution and Retail
      • Distribution Channels: Equipment/Supplies
      • Anomalous Distribution: Lawncare Services
      • Distribution Patterns: Direct vs. Intermediary
      • OPE Dealership Distribution
      • Distributors Still Play Vital Role
      • A Proliferation of L&G Retail Outlets
      • Home Centers the Rising Stars
      • Discount Chains Now No. 2 L&G Outlets
      • Adding Parking Lot Displays and Greenhouses
      • Traditional L&G Retailers under Assault
      • Sears: A Unique Case
      • Private-Label Programs at the Major Discounters
      • Regionality, Seasonality: North vs. South Retailing
    • The Consumer: Overview
      • Flower Gardening a Popular Leisure Activity
      • Profile: Flower Gardeners
      • Vegetable Gardening as a Leisure Activity
      • Profile: Vegetable Gardeners
      • L&G Ownership and Purchasing Patterns
      • Consumer Retail Preferences

  3. Lawn and Garden Equipment
    • The Products
      • Equipment Category: Three Segments
      • Outdoor Power Equipment: Brief Description
      • Gas-Powered Engines: Two-Stroke vs. Four-Stroke
      • Electric-Powered Engines: Corded and Cordless
      • Two OPE Classes: Large and Portable
      • Large OPE: Wheeled vs. Stationary
      • Large Wheeled OPE: Four Product Types
      • Mowers/Tractors: Four Classes
      • Walk-Behind Lawn Mowers
      • Riding Mowers
      • Lawn Tractors
      • Garden Tractors
      • Power Tillers/Cultivators
      • Snowthrowers
      • Power Spreaders/Seeders
      • Large Stationary OPE: Two Product Types
      • Chipper/Shredders
      • Power Composters
      • Portable OPE: Three General Product Types
      • Trimmers
      • String Trimmers
      • Trimmer/Brushcutters
      • Hand Trimmers
      • Blowers
      • Wood-Cutters
      • Tools/Implements: Description
      • Tools/Implements: Classifications
      • Cutting Tools
      • Cutting Tools on Wheels
      • Cultivating Tools
      • Weeding Tools
      • Digging Tools
      • Raking Tools
      • Wheeled Instruments
      • Stationary Composting Implements
      • Watering/Spraying Equipment: Classifications
      • Watering Equipment: Three Product Types
      • Garden Hoses
      • Aboveground Sprinklers/Drip Systems
      • Underground Irrigation Systems
      • Water Wands/Bubblers
      • Spraying Equipment: Product Types
    • Government Regulations
      • Safety Standards
      • EPA and Phase I
      • EPA and Phase II
      • Tough New Rules by CARB
      • OPE's Pollution Contribution
      • CARB's Tier 2: Feasibility and Costs
      • California Shakeup in 1999
      • EPA's More Flexible Approach
      • Industry Input and SOPs
      • Leaf Blower Controversy in L.A.
      • Local Waste Restrictions
    • Market Size, Growth, and Composition
      • Equipment Sales Nearly $18 Billion
      • Sales Trends by Segment
      • Table 3-1: U.S. Retail Sales of Lawn and Garden Equipment by Product Segment, 1994-1998 (dollars): Outdoor Power, Watering/Spraying, Tools/Implements
      • OPE the Largest Segment
      • Figure 3-1: Share of Dollar Sales of Lawn and Garden Equipment by Product Segment, 1998 (percent): Tools/Implements, Outdoor Power Equipment, Watering/Spraying Equipment
      • OPE Unit Share by Product Type
      • Table 3-2: Share of U.S. Outdoor Power Equipment Shipments by Product Type, 1998 (percent): 9 Types
      • Unit Share: Large OPE
      • Unit Share: Portable OPE
      • Retail Share: Rough Estimates
      • Private Labels Strong in Equipment
      • Equipment: Seasonality and Regionality
    • Factors in Future Growth
      • Overview: Better-Than-Expected Growth in a "Mature" Category
      • Demographics Strong for Equipment
      • Whither the Economy?
      • Extreme Weather and Future Equipment Sales
      • Stricter Regulation a Positive Paradox
      • A Low-Tech Trend in Equipment
      • Retail Trends Will Heighten Equipment Visibility
    • Projected Market Growth
      • Equipment Sales to Approach $22┬áBillion by 2003
      • Table 3-3: Projected Retail Sales of Lawn and Garden Equipment by Product Segment, 1999-2003 (millions): Outdoor Power, Watering/Spraying, Tools/Implements
    • The Marketers
      • Number of Marketers
      • Size and Types of Marketers
      • Most Marketers are Manufacturers
      • Many Marketers Have Deep Historical Roots
      • Geography of Manufacturing
      • Domestic vs. Foreign Marketers
      • Most OPE Makers with Diversified Interests
      • Consumer Conglomerates in Tools/Implements
      • Industrial Conglomerates in Watering/Spraying Equipment
      • Marketers Specialize by Segment
    • Marketers: OPE
      • Major Marketers
      • Second-Tier OPE Marketers
      • Marketers: Walk-Behind Rotary Mowers
      • Table 3-4: Marketers: Walk-Behind Rotary Mowers: Gas Powered, Electric Powered: List of 23 Marketers
      • Marketers: Riding Mowers and Lawn/Garden Tractors
      • Table 3-5: Marketers: Riding Mowers and Lawn/Garden Tractors: List of 13 Marketers
      • Marketers: String Trimmers
      • Table 3-6: Marketers: String Trimmers: Gas Powered, Electric Powered: List of 13 Marketers
      • Marketers: Chainsaws
      • Table 3-7: Marketers: Chainsaws: List of 8 Marketers
      • Marketers: Chipper/Shredders
      • Table 3-8: Marketers: Chipper/Shredders: List of 15 Marketers
      • Marketers: Power Tillers
      • Niche OPE Marketers
      • Major Engine Manufacturers
    • Marketers: L&G Tools
      • Major Marketers
      • Second-Tier Tools Marketers
      • Significant Minors: Tools
      • Marketers: Reel Mowers
      • Marketers: Wheeled Implements
      • Marketers: Composters
    • Marketers: Watering/Spraying Equipment
      • Watering Equipment Marketers
      • Marketers: Garden Hoses
      • Marketers: Sprinkler Systems
      • Marketers: Irrigation Systems
      • Marketers: Spraying Equipment
      • Table 3-9: Selected List of U.S. Lawn and Garden Equipment Marketers and Brands: 92 Marketers
    • Marketer and Brand Shares
      • Only Mass-Retail Inferences Are Possible
      • Qualitative, Not Quantitative, Meaning of "Share"
      • "Share" Determination Based Solely on Home Centers
      • Share: Walk-Behind Mowers
      • Share: Riding Mowers
      • Share: Gas-Powered String Trimmers
      • Share: Electric-Powered String Trimmers
      • Share: Gas-Powered Leaf Blowers
      • Share: Electric-Powered Leaf Blowers
      • Share: Chipper/Shredders
      • Share: Cutting Tools
      • Share: Short-Handled Tools
      • Share: Long-Handled Tools
      • Share: Leaf Rakes
      • Share: Fertilizer Spreaders
      • Share: Garden Hoses
      • Share: Soaker Hoses
      • Share: Compressed Air Sprayers
    • The Competitive Situation
      • Taking a "Product-Centered" Approach
      • Three-Tier Quality/Price Structure
      • Enhancing, Innovating, Extending Products
      • Pursuing Niche Strategies
      • Hedging Strategies
      • Restructuring
      • Shifting Competitive Trade Strategies
      • Marketing Efforts Focus on Trade Level
      • Competition: Tools/Implements
      • Competition: Hoses/Sprinklers
    • Competitive Profile: The Toro Company
      • Brief History
      • Sales
      • Residential vs. Commercial
      • Three Consumer Brand Lines
      • Engineering Expertise
      • Marketing Innovator
      • Strategic Acquisitions
      • Expanding into Professional Landscaping
      • A Force in Commercial Equipment
      • Latest Consumer Products
      • Extending into Home Centers
    • Competitive Profile: Electrolux AB
      • Global Leader in Appliances and Outdoor Goods
      • A Rich History of Invention
      • Strategic Acquisitions
      • Recent Complex Restructuring
      • Poulan/Weed Eater
      • Husqvarna Forest and Garden
      • American/European Collaboration
    • Competitive Profile: Deere & Co.
      • A Global Equipment Powerhouse
      • Sales
      • In Lawn Care for Over 35 Years
      • Homelite and Sabre
      • Restructuring
      • Capacity Expansion
      • Commercial vs. Consumer Orientation
    • Competitive Profile: MTD Products
      • Originally the Modern Tool and Die Co.
      • A Leader in Large OPE
      • Four Comprehensive Brand Lines
      • Concentrating on Mass Brands
    • Competitive Profile: Murray Ohio Manufacturing Co.
      • First Lucrative Niche: Wheel Toys
      • Enters Lawn Mowers in '60's
      • Acquisition and Innovation
      • Intensive Consumer Focus
    • Competitive Profile: Black & Decker Corp.
      • A Leader in Electric Tools, Appliances
      • Electric OPE in L&G
      • First in Cordless Mowers
      • The VersaPak Rechargeable System
    • Competitive Profile: O. Ames Co.
      • World Leader in "Non-Powered" Tools
      • Wide Distribution, Constant Innovation
      • Strategic Acquisitions
      • Parent: U.S. Industries
    • Competitive Profile: Fiskars Corp.
      • Old World Cutting Tool Major
      • Brief History
      • A Solid Presence in Contemporary L & G Tools
    • Competitive Profile: UnionTools
      • A Leader in Long-Handled Tools
      • Differentiating, Expanding Tool Lines
    • Competitive Profile: American Lawn Mower Co.
      • Monopoly in Reel Mowers
      • The Rise and Fall of Reel Mowers
      • Limping Along
      • Late 1990s: A New Boom
      • American/Great States: Nine Models
      • Customer Base
      • Behind the New Boom
    • Competitive Profile: Colorite Plastics Co.
      • From Hula Hoops to Hoses
      • A Comprehensive, Innovative Line of Garden Hoses
      • Company Structure
    • New Product Trends
      • OPE: Old vs. New Trends
      • Gas vs. Electric Power
      • Trends: Engine Design
      • Trends: Walk-Behind Mowers
      • Trends: Riding Mowers
      • Trends: Portable Power Equipment
      • Trends: Tillers
      • Trends: Tools
      • Table 3-10: Selected New Product Introductions: Lawn and Garden Equipment, 1997-1998 (21 Marketers)
    • Advertising and Promotion
      • Consumer Advertising Expenditures
      • Toro, Snapper, and Deere the Leading Advertisers
      • Media Employed
      • Equipment Advertising Positioning
      • The Performance Theme
      • The Longevity Theme
      • Longevity Plus Performance
      • Secondary Themes: Value
      • Comfort
      • Environmental Benefits
      • The Direct Pitch
      • Few Consumer Promotions
      • Trade Advertising
      • Trade Promotion
      • Examples of Advertising
    • Distribution and Retail
      • Standard Distribution
      • Primary Retail Outlets
      • Home Centers Pull Ahead of Discounters
      • Kmart's Response to Slippage
      • Brief Profile: Home Depot
      • Gradual Erosion of Dealers by Home Centers
      • Dealers Continue to Be Viable
      • Hardware Stores Suffer, But Some Survive Through Commitment
      • Survival Tactics for Hardware Stores
      • Sears Still Solid; Acquires Orchard
      • Catalogs/Boutique Stores: Smith & Hawken
    • The Consumer
      • Explanatory Note on Simmons Market Research
      • Number of Equipment Owners
      • OPE: Number of Owners/Buyers/Renters
      • Number of OPE Owners by Product Type
      • Table 3-11: Outdoor Power Equipment: Number of Owners by Product Type, 1998 (U.S. Adults): 12 Types
      • Factors Favoring Ownership: Outdoor Power Equipment
      • Factors Favoring Ownership: Walk-Behind Gas Mowers
      • Factors Favoring Ownership: Riding Mowers/Lawn Tractors and Garden Tractors
      • Factors Favoring Ownership: Electric Mowers
      • Factors Favoring Ownership: Edge and Hedge Trimmers
      • Factors Favoring Ownership: Yard Trimmers-Gas vs. Electric
      • Factors Favoring Ownership: Leaf Blowers
      • Factors Favoring Ownership: Garden Tillers
      • Factors Favoring Ownership: Snowblowers
      • Tools/Implements: Number of Owners/Buyers/Renters
      • Number of Tool/Implement Owners by Product Type
      • Factors Favoring Ownership: Tools/Implements
      • Factors Favoring Ownership: By Product Type
      • Table 3-12: Demographic Characteristics Favoring Ownership of Lawn and Garden Equipment: By Product Type, 1998: Any Equipment, Outdoor Power Equipment, Tools/Implements
      • Table 3-13: Demographic Characteristics Favoring Ownership of Outdoor Power Equipment: By Product Type, 1998: (U.S. Adults): Walk-Behind Lawn Mower (Gas-Powered), Riding Mower/Lawn Tractor, Garden Tractor
      • Table 3-14: Demographic Characteristics Favoring Ownership
      • of Outdoor Power Equipment: By Product Type, 1998 (U.S. Adults): Walk-Behind Lawn Mower (Electric-Powered), Edge Trimmer, Hedge Trimmer
      • Table 3-15: Demographic Characteristics Favoring Ownership
      • of Outdoor Power Equipment (U.S. Adults): By Product Type, 1998: Yard Trimmer (Gas-Powered), Yard Trimmer (Electric-Powered), Leaf Blower
      • Table 3-16: Demographic Characteristics Favoring Ownership
      • of Outdoor Power Equipment: By Product Type, 1998 (U.S. Adults): Garden Tiller, Snowblower
      • Table 3-17: Tools/Implements: Number of Owners
      • by Product Type, 1998 (U.S. Adults): 12 Types
      • Table 3-18: Demographic Characteristics Favoring Ownership
      • of Tools/Implements: By Product Type, 1998 (U.S. Adults): Cultivator, Edger, Grass Mover
      • Table 3-19: Demographic Characteristics Favoring Ownership of Tools/Implements: By Product Type, 1998 (U.S. Adults): Hoe, Pitchfork, Pruner
      • Table 3-20: Demographic Characteristics Favoring Ownership of Tools/Implements: By Product Type, 1998 (U.S. Adults): Rake, Shears, Shovel
      • Table 3-21: Demographic Characteristics Favoring Ownership of Tools/Implements: By Product Type, 1998 (U.S. Adults): Spreader, Trowel, Wheelbarrow

  4. Lawn and Garden Supplies
    • The Products
      • Two Product Segments: Fertilizers/Growth Media (F/GM);
      • Pest Control Supplies (Pesticides)
      • Fertilizers/Growth Media: Four Product Types
      • Fertilizers: Supplements, Not Foods
      • Fertilizers: Organic and Synthetic
      • Fertilizer Forms/Terminology
      • Growth Media
      • Soils
      • Soil Amendments
      • Mulches
      • Compost Accelerators
      • Pest Control Supplies: Three Product Types
      • Insecticides
      • Herbicides
      • Fungicides
    • Government Regulation
      • Pesticide Registration
      • The Food Quality Protection Act of 1996
      • Multiple Chemical Sensitivity
      • Regulations: Packaging/Labeling
    • Market Size, Growth, and Composition
      • Supplies Sales at $4.5 Billion
      • Table 4-1: Retail Sales of Lawn and Garden Supplies by Product Segment, 1994-1998 (dollars): Fertilizers/Growth Media, Pesticides
      • Fertilizers/Growth Media Up; Pesticides Slowing
      • Behind The Growth/Decline Trends
      • Share by Segment
      • Fertilizer Share: Lawn Fertilizers Most Popular Type
      • Pesticide Share: Insecticides Most Popular Type
      • Supplies: Retail Share
      • Regionality
      • Table 4-2: Product Type Purchasing Index of Lawn and Garden Supplies by Region, 1998: 9 Types
    • Factors in Future Growth
      • Overview
      • Demographics Favorable
      • Homeownership Rates Positive
      • Climate Change Could Favor Supplies
      • Supplies Tied to Sinking Commodities
      • Environmental Awareness Not Particularly Favorable
      • Shift to Organic Solutions Would Be Positive
      • Retail Factors—A Mixed Picture
      • New Products Could Stimulate Growth at Margins
    • Projected Market Growth
      • Sales to Reach Over $5 Billion
      • Table 4-3: Projected Retail Sales of Lawn and Garden Supplies by Product Segment, 1999-2003 (dollars): Fertilizers/Growth Media, Pesticides
    • The Marketers
      • Number of Marketers
      • Size and Types of Marketers
      • Marketers Tend to Specialize
      • Scotts the Undisputed Leader in Supplies
      • Fertilizers: Pursell Now Alone in a Second Tier
      • Fertilizers: Significant Minors
      • Growth Media: Leaders by Selected Product Type
      • Pesticides: Significant Minors
      • Marketers of Professional Pesticide Products
      • Ringer on Top in Organic Supplies
      • Kmart Leads in Private Labels
      • Table 4-4: Selected List of U.S. Lawn and Garden Supplies Marketers and Brands (58 Marketers)
    • Marketer and Brand Shares
      • Explanatory Note
      • Share: Lawn Fertilizers
      • Share: Plant Food
      • Share: Peat Moss
      • Share: Potting Soil
      • Share: Landscape Fabric
      • Share: Pesticides
    • The Competitive Situation
      • Overview: Commodities Marketing in a Consumer Environment
      • Monsanto: Why the Sudden Exit?
      • Scotts: Why the Risky Gamble?
      • Competition: Fertilizers
      • Competition: Growth Media
      • Competition: Pesticides
    • Competitive Profile: The Scotts Company
      • The Most Ambitious Player in Lawn and Garden
      • A Global Presence
      • Scotts Rules in Both Supplies Segments
      • Record 1998 Sales
      • Organizational Structure
      • U.S. and U.K. Brands
      • Brief History
      • The 1990s: A Case Study in M&A Strategy
      • Scotts' Big Move: The Miracle-Gro Merger
      • A New, Aggressive Management Team
      • 1997: Revving Up
      • 1998: A Series of Bold Acquisitions
      • The Master of the Supplies Universe Loaded With Debt
      • Enters 1999 As Dominant in U.S. and Europe
    • Competitive Profile: Pursell Industries
      • World Leader in Time-Release Fertilizers
      • Flagship Brand: Sta-Green with Polyon
      • Other Pursell Brands
      • Acquires Vigoro in 1998
      • Focus: Vigoro
      • The New Pursell/Vigoro Combination Could Be Powerful
    • New Product Trends
      • More Potent Products
      • More Convenient Products
      • New Niche Products
      • Safer Pesticides
      • Trends in Growth Media Products
      • Table 4-5: Selected New Product Introductions: Lawn and Garden Supplies, 1997-1998 (14 Marketers)
    • Advertising and Promotion
      • Consumer Advertising Expenditures
      • Media Utilized
      • Advertising Positioning: Performance the Primary Thematic
      • The Professional Theme
      • The Superior Theme
      • The Humor Theme
      • Celebrity Endorsements
      • Huckster Ads
      • The Convenience Theme
      • Consumer Promotions
      • Trade Advertising
      • Examples of Advertising
    • Distribution and Retail
      • Distribution Patterns
      • A Wide Range of Retail Outlets
      • Mass Retailers Lead in Share
      • Home Centers vs. Discounters
      • Retail Focus: Garden Centers
      • Garden Center Strengths
      • Differentiation Strategy
      • Garden Center Merchandising
    • The Consumer
      • Overview
      • Number of Purchasers by Product Type
      • Table 4-6: Number of Purchasers of Lawn and Garden Supplies by Product Type, 1998 (U.S. Adults): 9 Types
      • Purchasing Patterns by Sex
      • Overall Factors Favoring Purchasing of Supplies
      • Factors Favoring Purchase: Weed/Feed Products
      • Factors Favoring Purchase: Flower Garden Fertilizer
      • Factors Favoring Purchase: Lawn Fertilizer
      • Factors Favoring Purchase: Insecticide (Synthetic)
      • Factors Favoring Purchase: House Plant Fertilizer
      • Factors Favoring Purchase: Vegetable Garden Fertilizer
      • Factors Favoring Purchase: Compost Products
      • Factors Favoring Purchase: Herbicides (Synthetic)
      • Factors Favoring Use: Insecticide (Organic)
      • Table 4-7: Demographic Characteristics Favoring Purchasing of Supplies: By Product Type, 1998 (U.S. Adults): Weed & Feed, Flower Garden Fertilizer, Lawn Fertilizer
      • Table 4-8: Demographic Characteristics Favoring Purchasing of Supplies: By Product Type, 1998 (U.S. Adults) Insecticide (synthetic), House Plant Fertilizer, Vegetable Garden Fertilizer
      • Table 4-9: Demographic Characteristics Favoring Purchasing of Supplies: By Product Type, 1998 (U.S. Adults): Compost, Herbicide (synthetic), Insecticide (organic)

  5. Professional Lawn Care Services
    • The Services
      • Category Definition
      • Focus: Professional Lawncare Services
      • The Standard Treatment Program
      • Synthetic vs. Organic Programs
    • Government Regulations
      • Licensing
      • Disclosure Policies
      • Notification Policies
    • Market Size, Growth, and Composition
      • Sales Jump to Near $2.7 Billion
      • Table 5-1: U.S. Sales of Professional Lawncare Services, 1994-1998 (dollars)
      • Standard vs. Customized Programs
      • Share: Residential vs. Commercial Sales
      • Seasonality
      • Regionality
    • Factors in Future Growth
      • The More Money/Less Time Equation Is Positive
      • Economic Uncertainties Should Not Slow Growth
      • Hazard Awareness Favors Growth
      • Aging Population Positive
      • Consolidation Trend a Primary Positive
      • Climate Potentially Negative
      • A Big Uncertainty: The Tight Labor Market
    • Projected Market Growth
      • Strong Growth Foreseen for Services
      • Table 5-2: Projected Sales of Professional Lawncare Services, 1999-2003: (dollars)
    • The Marketers
      • Number of Marketers
      • Size and Types of Marketers
      • TruGreen-ChemLawn with Lion's Share
      • The Second Tier
      • Table 5-3: Selected U.S. Marketers of Professional Lawncare Services (33 Marketers)
    • The Competitive Situation
      • The Old Days: A Metro-Based "Mom and Pop" Affair
      • The New Days: Transformation Through Consolidation
      • Easy to Enter, Hard to Grow
      • Safe Expansion; Risky Expansion
      • Barefoot and the Risky Approach
      • ServiceMaster Gobbles up Successful Firms
      • Vacuum in the Middle
      • In Walks Scotts
      • Consolidation: Pros and Cons
      • Debate Lightning Rod: TruGreen-ChemLawn
      • Locals Attempt to Stay Competitive
    • Competitive Profile: ServiceMaster LP
      • From Servant to Master
      • Divisions and Companies
      • A Highly Unique Strategy
      • Rise to Dominance in Lawn Services
      • TruGreen-ChemLawn (TGCL): Overview
      • TGCL Strategically Diversifies Through Acquisition
      • The Recent LandCare USA Buyout
      • ServiceMaster Now Rules Both Lawncare and Landscape Services
    • Competitive Profile: Turf's Up Lawn Service
      • Overview
      • A Classic Mom-and-Pop Operation
      • Filling the Wintertime Void
      • Expanding into Sports Turf
    • Competitive Focus: Franchise Operations
      • Major Franchisers
      • Franchisee Benefits
      • Fees/Royalties
      • Profile: Lawn Doctor, Inc.
      • Profile: Spring-Green Lawncare Corp.
    • Advertising and Promotion
      • Low Advertising Expenditures
      • Lawn Doctor the Only Big Advertiser
      • Marketing through Branding
      • Services Positioning
      • Services Promotion
      • Free Estimates, Discounts
    • The Consumer
      • Number of Service Users
      • A Slight Skew to Women
      • Factors Favoring Use
      • Table 5-4: Demographic Characteristics Favoring Use of
      • Lawn Maintenance Services, 1998 (U.S. Adults)

    Appendix I: Advertisements. This appendix appears in bound editions only.
    Appendix II: Addresses of Selected Marketers

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